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SLE132- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 42 pages long!)


Department
Science, Engineering and Built Environment
Course Code
SLE132
Professor
Peter Beech
Study Guide
Midterm

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Deakin
SLE132
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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LECTURE 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE UNIT AND TO THE STUDY OF ANIMALS
Biologists have identified >1.3 million living species of animals.
Binomial nomenclature: two part scientific name in italics. Genus, species.
HIERACHIAL CLASSIFICATION
Animals are grouped into 8 hierarchical groups which was first devised by Linnaeus.
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. DKPCOFGS
Taxon: named taxonomic unit at any hierarchy
Classification can also be used to illustrate evolutionary history or phylogeny. Animals may be reclassified or
inserted into different categories (sub or super categories)
PhyloCode/ Cladistics: based entirely on evolutionary relationships. Aims to create a tree that depicts the
evolutionary events and hence evolutionary relationships.
Monophyletic groups: contains recent common ancestor and all of its descendants. Branch points represent
divergence from a common ancestor (monophyletic group). A branch point can also form a polytomy (an
unresolved pattern of divergence.)
Sister taxa: two decendants that split from the same node are called sister taxa. They are each others closest relatives.
Polytomy: an international node of a cladogram that has more than 2 immediate descendents (sister taxa)
WHAT IS AN ANIMAL
Nutrition: obtains nutrients by eating other organisms.
Eukaryotic, multicellular (large size and greater complexity), lack cell walls composed of cellulose, have cells held together by protein (collagen) and
usually contain 2 specialised cell types (nerve and muscle cells.)
Animals reproduce sexually.
Somatic cells: diploid (2 sets of chromosomes)
Gametes (sperm and eggs): cells undergo meiosis to form haploid sex cells (1 set of chromosomes). Haploid sex cells fuse to form diploid organism.
Allows mixing of genes. More phenotypes upon which natural selection can work on.
Animal groups:
According to different body plan (eg. Single cells or multicellular, cephalisation-definite head, cell walls, symmetry and organelles).
Higher taxa (kingdom, phyla) gross differences shared by all: multi-cellularity, symmetry and tube within a tube.
Lower taxa (class, order): specific differences shared by some.
Symmetry:
Radial symmetry: cut in half along any plane to give a mirror image. All sides have an equal chance of catching prey (sessile animals).
Bilateral symmetry: cut along one plane to give a mirror image.
Cross section: diploblastic (2 cellular layers, ectoderm and endoderm) or triploblastic (3 cellular layers, ectoderm-skin, mesoderm-muscles,
endoderm-lining of digestive tract)
LECTURE 2: CELLS, TISSUES AND ORGANS
The biological hierarchy of organisation: cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, whole organism.
The physiology of the whole organism depends on the coordinated function of its organ systems.
Tissues: cells with similar functions grouped together. The 4 main tissue types are epithelial, connective, nervous and muscle tissue.
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
Covers the body, lines organs and cavities. Cells are bound together by a tight junction.
Apical surface = towards Basal lamina= separates epithelial from underlying tissue
Types of epithelium:
Simple cuboidal: diced shaped cell specialized for secretion.
Stratified cuboidal
Simple columnar: lines the intestines secreting digestive enzymes and absorbing nutrients.
Stratified columnar
Simple squamous: thin cells that aid in diffusion.
Stratified squamous: regenerates rapidly helping surfaces that are subject to damage.
Basement membrane (basolateral surface): mat of collagen fibres
Pseudostratified: composed of a single layer of cells, although has nuclei position to
suggest stratified epithelium.
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Binds and supports other tissues. Composed of cells (secrete the matrix) and matrix (liquid, jellylike
or solid.)
Collagenous fibres: collagen, tough and non-elastic.
Elastic fibres: elastin and elastic.
Reticular fibres: collagen, fibrous mat that joins connective tissue to adjacent tissues
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Types of connective tissue: loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue, cartilage, bone and blood
NERVOUS TISSUE
Neuron or nerve cell. Composed of a cell body and 2 extensions (dendrites and axons).
Dendrites: transmit impulses from their tips towards the rest of the neuron.
Axons: transmit impulses towards another neuron or an effector.
MUSLCE TISSUE
Long cells in parallel. Cells are composed of actin any myosin fibres. These are contractile fibres.
Types of muscle: skeletal (striated), smooth muscle (lack striations, involuntary) and cardiac (striated).
TISSUES FROM ORGANS (MEMBRANES)
Serosa: connective tissue that creates a fine membrane over internal organs.
Submucosa: connective tissue that is a layer of the gut wall between the mucosa and external muscular coat.
Mucosa: epithelium
ORGAN SYSTEMS
Have a number of organs that have a specific function that is coordinated to survive.
AVENUES OF EXCHANGE
Single celled organisms have a large SA: volume ratio which aids in diffusion.
Animals of 2 cell layers (flatworms) can diffuse from one layer to another.
Large complex animals have a smaller SA: volume ratio which results in complex internal organisation. The intestine,
respiratory and excretory systems have parts with increased SA>
Surface area to volume ratio imposes upper limits on cell size.
LECTURE 3: DEVELOPMENT
Fertilization: activates egg and brings together nuclei of sperm and egg.
Embryonic development involves:
Cell division into different cells and then different environment.
Differential gene expression (turning on and off of genes) leads to
cell differentiation
Differential morphogenesis.
Changes induced by fertilisation
1. Contact
2. Acrosome (sperm tip) reaction: releases hydrolytic enzymes and
degrades jelly coat.
3. Na channels open and Na rushes in. This causes depolarisation and
fast block to polyspermy.
4. Corticol reaction (Ca wave): Ca released into cytoplasm from ER.
Cortical granules fuse with membrane. Slow block to polyspermy.
5. Recognition molecules on vitelline membrane cause the plasma
membrane egg and sperm to fuse.
6. Entry of sperm to the nucleus
ACTIVATION OF THE EGG
Increased Ca in the egg stimulates metabolism. An increase in cell pH occurs, pumping H+ ions out of the cell.
In the meantime, the sperm nucleus merges with egg nucleus to form a diploid zygote. DNA synthesised and first cell division after 90 minutes.
FERTILISATION IN MAMMALS
Capacitation: enhance sperm motility.
Sperm migrates between follicle cells. Sperm acrosome release enzymes which degrade zona pellucida. Sperm cell binds and induces acrosomal and
corticol reaction (formation of a fertilisation envelope to reduce polyspermy)
Differences:
Entire sperm enters the egg.
Haploid nuclei of sperm and egg dissolve. Membrane dissolves. Replicate and divide without
condensing.
Chromosomes only condense into diploid nuclei after first division.
POST FERTILISATION CELL DIVISION
Zygote partitioned into blastomeres. Each blastomere in different
cytoplasmic determinants.
Frogs eggs:
2 hemispheres: animal pole (anterior) and vegetal pole (posterior).
Fertilisation: rotation of cell cortex to expose grey crescent (dorsal)
Bird eggs: plentiful yolk. Cleavage restricted animal pole (meroblastic cleavage)
Animals with less yolk: complete division of the egg (holoblastic cleavage)
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