Research Exam Revision.docx

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Griffith University
Dept Tourism,Sport and Hotel Management
Daniel Lock

1002HSL – Intro to Research REVISION I. Research, Theory and Concept: Concept and Theory:  Concept: “abstract ideas based on describable attributes that can be labeled (name, symbol)”  Concepts contain two parts (Neumann, 1997): 1. They represent a symbol, or a word 2. They can be specifically defined  Theory: “Explanations of why things occur”  Population: A group of people sharing a common trait  Sample: A sub-group of a population drawn for research  Paradigm: Worldview or system of beliefs  Research is the systematic process of gathering and interpreting empirical information in order to be able to understand reality Types of Theory:  Positivistic researchers (Quantitative) Deductive  know theories and test through observation  propositions derived from them (hypothesis testing)  Interpretive researchers (Qualitative) Inductive 1002HSL – Intro to Research  observe consistencies  and build theories about them (grounded theories) Characteristics of research:  Data are collected systematically  Data are interpreted systematically  There is a clear purpose: to find things out Elements of research:  Cross-sectional: implement at a single point in time, does not involve intervention  Longitudinal: over a period of time, subjects & questions must be the same, used to measure trends and changes  Experimental: involve an intervention, at least 1 controlled group, 1 test variable must be able to manipulated  Case study: focussed on a single case, uses multiple data collection/analysis methods Types of Research:  Descriptive: Outlining specific characteristics of a population  Explanatory: Seeks to explain why the patterns or trends observed occur  Evaluative: Uses research to test the effectiveness of programs and policies that are being used at a point in time 1002HSL – Intro to Research Conceptualisation and Operationalisation:  Conceptualisation is the process of taking a construct or variable and refining it by giving it a conceptual or theoretical definition.  Operationalisation links a conceptual definition to a specific set of measurement techniques or procedures, the construct‟s operational definition. II. Research Method: Sampling strategies:  Convenience (Opportunistic): non-probability sampling  Theoretical;  Homogeneous: samples with same or similar characteristics  Maximum variation;  Purposive;  Snowball: existing subjects recruit future subjects  Stratified: divide samples into subgroups with homogenous characteristics Grounded Theory:  Far more common approach to qualitative analysis  Theory derived from data – induction  Data collection and analysis proceed in tandem  Aiming for two stages: 1002HSL – Intro to Research  Theoretical saturation – there are no new explanations emerging from data  Constant comparison – the data is referred back to the conceptual map and topic constantly to assure relevant analysis. Qualitative: Qualitative Research  Avoids „standardised‟ approach to study design
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