Intro & History of Psychology 2
KEY TERMS History of psychology
Introspection. Method by which trained observers carefully reflect • Understanding of history gives us:
and report on their mental experiences (requires o Greater perspective and deeper understanding.
reflection on the self). o Recognitions of fads and fashions.
Structuralism. School of Psych that aimed to identify the basic o Ability to avoid repetition of mistakes.
elements of psychological experience. o A source of valuable ideas.
Functionalism. School that aimed to understand the adaptive o Psychology shaped by its history.
purposes of psychological characteristics. o We appreciate the trends within the discipline.
Natural selection. Principle that organisms that posses adaptation
survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other Philosophy
organisms. • Psychology grew out of it.
Behaviourism. School that focuses on uncovering the general laws • Persistent questions:
of learning by looking at observable behaviour o The mind-body problem – can we define behaviour as biological
(black box psych). processes or do we need to separate all aspects.
o The origins of human knowledge – is our knowledge from our
Cognitive psychology. School that proposes that thinking is central to
understanding behaviour. thoughts of experience in the world.
Cognitive neuroscience. Relatively new field of psych that examines the o Nature versus nurture – behaviour determined by environment or
environment determined by behaviour.
relation between brain functioning and thinking.
Psychoanalysis. School that focuses on internal psychological o Relationship between humans and non-humans – are humans and
processes of which we’re unaware. animals all unique or are we the same but humans more complex.
o Free will versus determinism – do we have free will and control of
Evolutionary psychology. Discipline that applies Darwin’s theory of natural
selection to human and animal behaviour. our behaviour or are we slaves to our environment.
Basic research. Research examining how the mind works.
Early modern philosophy
Applied research. Research examining how we can use basic research
to solve real world problems. • Rene Descartes (1596-1650):
o Got rid of all assumptions to try and understand human experience
Volition. Cognitive process by which an individual decides
– he knew nothing because he decided all knowledge and
and commits to participate in a course of action.
Apperception. Mental process by which a person makes sense of experience comes from sensory processes and we are limited by
an idea by assimilating it to the body of ideas they
o Rationalism – the criterion of the truth is not sensory but
Phi phenomenon. Optical illusion of perceiving continuous motion intellectual and deductive.
o Knowledge is from thought and reflection.
between separate objects viewed rapidly in
succession. o Mind-body dualism – there could be a mind alongside the physical
Determinism. Behaviour is caused by factors outside of our part of the body but that the soul was located in the pineal gland.
Eclectic approaches. Deriving things from a variety of sources. • Rejected rationalist doctrine of innate ideas (Descartes).
• All knowledge is derived from experience – mainly sensory experience.