PYB110 Exam Revision Notes - Week 1

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PYB110 Week One Revision Notes Two Branches of Statistical Methods  Descriptive is when the information is summarised so that it is more easily understood.  Inferential is used to draw conclusions about regularities in the data. Variable  A variable is something that is able to vary or take different values. o E.g. across people – gender, height, weight etc. and within people – height, weight, job satisfaction etc.  Variables are often used within psychology as scores on a particular test, for example.  A value is just a number in a category.  A score is a particular person’s value for that variable. Kinds of Variables There are two types of different variables:  Categorical or nominal variables – values which are not numerical and differ in name only.  Numeric or quantitative variables o Two kinds of numeric variables:  Ordinal or rank-order variables – differ in the order in which the variables are placed. The intervals are not necessarily equal.  Equal interval variables – equal intervals between ranks are implied. For example, the difference between a score of 5 and 7 is the same as the difference between a score of 8 and 10 (2).  Some equal interval variables are measured on what is called a ratio scale. Equal interval variables are measured on a ratio scale when they have an absolute zero point. This means that a score of 0 on the variable indicates a complete absence of the variable.  Equal interval variables also can be classified as discrete or continuous variables. A discrete variable is one that only has whole number values (i.e. 2, 6, 919) and a continuous variable can theoretically have infinite possibilities in between (i.e. 34.789, 6.78, 0.1347). Frequency Tables Shows how frequently each value of a variable occurs. Frequency tables are useful for showing overall tendencies. How to create a frequency table:  Make a list beginning with the lowest score and finishing with the highest. I
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