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Final

CRIM1010 Final: Criminology- Introduction

21 Pages
51 Views
Spring 2018

Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM1010
Professor
Bianca Fileborn
Study Guide
Final

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Criminology: An Introduction 1010
What is crime?
Crime is represented in so many of our social products (movies, comics, books)
Crime is horrific and repulsive and yet draws the attention of the contemporary
reader
What is about crime that takes so much of our attention and seduces us?
The seductions of crime
We are fascinated by crime because it tells us something about ourselves
Katz argues that we all grapple with these desires to engage in criminal behaviour
Why does it appeal
We have complex and contradictory responses towards crime
Crime captures our imaginations: attracts, repels, amuses, frightens, angers,
intrigues
Every time we hear the term ‘crime’ we immediately jump to extreme events such as
murder, and assault
Many of these crimes can be deemed as just “everyday crimes”
What is crime? How we do describe which behaviour is deemed criminal?
We have divergent and competing understanding on what constitutes as crime
No one straightforward definition or easy answer
Describes a vast range of behaviour with different consequences and impacts
o E.g. non-payment of fines, insider trading, illegal waste dumping, murder etc
(Weatherburn 2004:55)
Definitions ever evolving- constantly changes across time and across different
social and cultural contentions
o Up until 90’s in Aus states, husbands had legal authority to rape in marriage
Only changed after the second wave movement
Different changes in laws internationally
o Consenting homosexual acts
Illegal for two men to engage in a sexual relationship (70s).
throughout the 90’s this concept changes to an allowance of such a
relationship
o Environmental crime
o Cyber bullying- because of the development in technology these laws
addressing cyber bullying could not happen until recently
Lack of agreement over what constitutes as crime and in what context
o Society generally condones murder
o Ivan Milat Backpacker Killings
o Death penalty- how is murder different from forced execution
o Assisted suicide
o Drug use- is drug use something that should be regulated in the law? Or
should it be left to the health system? Should we treat someone who smokes
regularly differently to someone who does this recreationally?
o Animals- should animals be protected in criminal law? Should they be
extended the same civil and political rights as humans?
o Headgar- social contention in France. Is it the role of the state to regulate
what one should wear?
What shapes your views on crime
Your individual values
Your personal experience
o As a victim?
o As a perpetrator?
o As a bystander?
Your social context
o Parents/ friends- what do they think about certain criminal behaviour?
Maybe they support it?
o School/job
Your information sources
o Mass media- can shape our views on the contemporary problems of society
Approaches to ‘what is crime’?
Legal approach- crime is anything that is against the law
o Problem- law might not reflect contemporary political and social issues
o There are some socially harming and dangerous behaviours that are not
included in the law
o Legal procedures don’t tell us how something becomes criminal behaviour
o Who’s interests are being served by the law?
Social harm approach- crime is anything that causes significant social harm
o Do we agree about what constitutes social harm?
Some people think that homosexual acts should be regulated by
society, and it is morally wrong
Human rights- crime is anything that violates our human rights
o How might we view our government’s current treatment of asylum seekers.
Is putting refugees in detention centres a crime against our human rights
The social process approach- something becomes a crime because we decide it is a
crime
o We actively label certain acts and certain behaviour as criminal, these then
may become legislature
o Socially mediated process, that is constantly being produced
o What we label and define as criminal may be influenced by our own
personal context
Cross cultural universal norm-approach- crimes that does not vary that much
across cultures
homicide is seen across all cultures as morally wrong
human-diversity approach- crime is a “normal” response to oppression and
inequality
related to power relations that render some people more vulnerable
to others
some people in the bottom end of hierarchy may engage in criminal
activity in order to survive- poor people
labelling- elite in society define crime depending on what they believe
Behaviour that are criminalised
crime varies across time and place
certain aspects of crime may be highly contested- what crimes should be regulated
and for what purpose
crime may or may not be considered immoral
crime is “socially constructed”
The concept of deviance
breaching the norms of the normal social and cultural context
street harassment- forms the cultural backdrop that results in more serious crimes
to happen
deviance is “behaviour that violates the normative rules, understanding or
expectations of a social system” (Cohen 1968, p 148)
deviance exists “wherever people hold others to behavioural standards” (Goffman
1983)
the breaking of formal vs. the freaking of informal norms
Who is a criminal?
Bike gangs- we perceive as most likely to engage in criminal behaviour
Dictators
Hacking- depending on the context could be seen as criminal or morally justified
At what age, should we be held criminally responsible for our actions?
Why do we need criminal labels?
Conservative approach- we need to mark out certain people’s behaviour as being
criminal, as there has been a general consensus on what is deemed as criminal
Liberal approach- recognises there is a plurality of values within a society. Not only
rigid opinion. Adjudicating between competing values/ achieving consensus
Labelling certain behaviour as criminal is protecting unequal social order (radical)
Could we have a crime-free society?
Emile Durkheim- we can’t have a crime free society, our society is organised in
such a way that crime is a necessity and inherent aspect of our society, it cannot be
non-existent
What is criminology
Criminology as a discipline came into being in the late 1800s
The term ‘criminology was coined in 1995 by Raffaele
The discipline of criminology
Deals with complexity and ambiguity
Multi-disciplinary- brings in view points from science, anthropology
sociological input (groups, society/social structure, environment, power)
psychological input (the individual, behaviour, mental processes, personality
attitudes)
situational input (the lived experience)

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Description
Criminology:AnIntroduction1010 What is crime? Crime is represented in so many of our social products (movies, comics, books) Crime is horrific and repulsive and yet draws the attention of the contemporary reader What is about crime that takes so much of our attention and seduces us? The seductions of crime We are fascinated by crime because it tells us something about ourselves Katz argues that we all grapple with these desires to engage in criminal behaviour Why does it appeal We have complex and contradictory responses towards crime Crime captures our imaginations: attracts, repels, amuses, frightens, angers, intrigues Every time we hear the term crime we immediately jump to extreme events such as murder, and assault Many of these crimes can be deemed as just everyday crimes What is crime? How we do describe which behaviour is deemed criminal? We have divergent and competing understanding on what constitutes as crime No one straightforward definition or easy answer Describes a vast range of behaviour with different consequences and impacts o E.g. nonpayment of fines, insider trading, illegal waste dumping, murder etc (Weatherburn 2004:55) Definitions ever evolving constantly changes across time and across different social and cultural contentions o Up until 90s in Aus states, husbands had legal authority to rape in marriage Only changed after the second wave movement Different changes in laws internationally o Consenting homosexual acts Illegal for two men to engage in a sexual relationship (70s). throughout the 90s this concept changes to an allowance of such a relationship o Environmental crime o Cyber bullying because of the development in technology these laws addressing cyber bullying could not happen until recently Lack of agreement over what constitutes as crime and in what context o Society generally condones murder o Ivan Milat Backpacker Killings o Death penalty how is murder different from forced execution o Assisted suicide o Drug use is drug use something that should be regulated in the law? Or should it be left to the health system? Should we treat someone who smokes regularly differently to someone who does this recreationally? o Animals should animals be protected in criminal law? Should they be extended the same civil and political rights as humans?
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