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Midterm

PHIL1110 Study Guide - Ad Hominem, Confirmation Bias, False Dilemma

1 Page
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Fall 2018

Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL1110
Professor
Dr. Toby Meadows
Study Guide
Midterm

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Arguments
Propositions and a conclusion
Can be asserted or denied
Deductive where the premises force the conclusion to be true
Inductive where the likelihood of the conclusion is known (never certain)
Kinds of Reasoning
System 1 Quick with shortcuts in thinking (is prone to heuristic biases)
System 2 Deliberate, conscious thinking (is slow)
Heuristic Biases
Representativeness Like goes with like or stereotyping
Availability Using the first information that comes to mind (being asked your
favourite ovie ad ca’t thik of ay)
Anchoring Adjustment occurs when an individual makes new decisions based on
the old, anchor number
Confirmation Bias Not looking for disparaging information to a preconceived notion, only
searching for information to confirm your ideas
Persuasion Techniques
Asking Questions
Contrast Principle
Message Repetition
Scarcity
Jargon/statistics
Disrupt/reframe
Social consensus
Fallacies
Question begging assumes the statement under examination to be true. In other
words, using a premise to support itself.
Equivocation when a key term or phrase in an argument is used in an ambiguous
way, with one meaning in one portion of the argument and then another meaning in
another portion of the argument.
Strawman giving the impression of refuting an opponent's argument, while actually
refuting an argument that was not presented by that opponent.
Ad Hominem attacking the person rather than the argument
False dilemma arguing over only two options when in actual fact there are far
more
Gamblers fallacy the mistaken belief that, if something happens more frequently
than normal during a given period, it will happen less frequently in the future
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Description
Arguments Propositions and a conclusion Can be asserted or denied Deductive where the premises force the conclusion to be true Inductive where the likelihood of the conclusion is known (never certain) Kinds of Reasoning System 1 Quick with shortcuts in thinking (is prone to heuristic biases) System 2 Deliberate, conscious thinking (is slow) Heuristic Biases Representativeness Like goes with like or stereotyping Availability Using the first information that comes to mind (being asked your favourite movie and cant think of any) Anchoring Adjustment occurs when an individual makes new decisions based on the old, anchor number Confirmation Bias Not looking for disparaging information to a preconceived notion, only searching for information to confirm your ideas Persuasion Techniques Asking Questions Contrast Principle Message Repetition Scarcity Jargonstatistics Disruptreframe Social consensus Fallacies Question begging assumes the statement under examination to be true. In other words, using a premise to support itself. Equivocation when a key term or phrase in an argument is used in an ambiguous way, with one meaning in one portion of the argument and then another meaning in another portion of the argument. Strawman giving the impression of refuting an opponents argument, while actually refuting an argument that was not presented by that opponent. Ad Hominem attacking the person rather than the argument False dilemma arguing over only two options when in actual fact there are far more Gamblers fallacy the mistaken belief that, if something happens more frequently than normal during a given period, it will happen less frequently in the future
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