BIOL 325 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Nerve, Muscle, Sensory Neuron

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Chp1
1. define the terms anatomy and physiology.
1. Anatomy: science of structures and relationships among them
1. Branches of anatomy:
1. Histology: microscopic structure of tissues
2. Developmental biology: complete development of an individual from
inception (fertilization) to death
3. Embryology: first 8 weeks of development after fertilization of human egg
4. Systemic anatomy: structures of specific systems, such as nervous or
respiratory system
5. Surface anatomy: surface markings of the body, to understand internal
anatomy thru visualizations and palpatation
6. Regional anatomy: specific regions of the body, such as head or chest
7. Pathological anatomy: structural changes associated with disease
2. Physiology: the science of body functions
2. define the following levels of structural organization: chemical, cellular, tissue, organ,
system and organism.
1. Chemical: most basic level; comprises atoms and moelcules
2. Cellular: basic structural and functional units of an organism, composed of
chemicals
1. For example nerve, muscle, epithelial cells
3. Tissue: groups of cells; materials surrounding them that work together to perform a
function:
1. 4 types:
1. Epithelial: covers body surfaces, lines organs, forms glands
2. Connective: connects and supports organs
3. Muscular: contracts to move body parts, generates heat
4. Nervous: carries information
4. Organ: different types of tissues are joined together, will have specific functions and
usually recognizable shapes
5. System (or Organ system): related organs with common function, such as digestive
system, comprised of moth, salivary glands, pharnx
6. Organismal: any living organism, composed of various systems
3. identify the 11 systems of the human body, list representative organs of each system, and
describe the major functions of each system.
1. Integumentary system:
1. Skin, related structures like hair, nails, sweat and oil glands
2. Function: protects body, helps regulate temperature, eliminates some waste,
detects sensation, stores fat
2. Skeletal System:
1. Bones, joints, and cartilage
2. Supports and protects body; provides surface for muscle attachment, houses
cells that produce blood cells; stores minerals and fats (got this wrong);
aids movement
3. Muscular System:
1. Skeletal muscle tissue (usually attached to bone); smooth and cardiac muscle
2. Participates in movement, produces heat
4. Nervous System:
1. Brain, spinal cord, nerves, special sense organs (eyes, ears)
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2. Generates Action potentials to regulate activity, detects changes in body's
int/ext environment, interprets changes and responds by causing muscular
contractions/ glandular secretions
5. Endocrine system:
1. Hormone producing gland (pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and
parathyroid gland, pancreases, ovaries, and testes); hormone producing cells in
other tissues
2. Regulates body activities
6. Cardiovascular system
1. Blood, heart, blood vessels
2. Pump blood, which carries oxygen/nutrients and waste, to and from cells
7. Lymphatic system and Immunity
1. Lymphatic fluid and vessels: spleen, thymus, lymph nodes and tonsils, cells
that carry out immune responses (B cells, T Cells)
2. Returns protein/fluid to blood, carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to
blood; contains side of maturation and proliferation of B/T cells that protect
against disease-causing microbes
8. Respiratory system
1. Lungs and air passage ways (pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes)
2. Function: transfers oxygen, regulates acid-based balance; produces sounds
9. Digestive system
1. Gastro-intestinal tract: Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large
intestines, anus. And accessory organs that aid in digestion: salivary glands,
liver, gallbladder, pancreas
2. Physical/chemical breakdown of good, absorbs nutrients; eliminates physical
waste
10. Urinary system
1. Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
2. Produces, stores, eliminates urine and waste; maintains acid-base balance;
helps regulate production of red-blood cells
11. Reproductive system
1. Gonads (testes for men; ovaries for women) and associated organs (uterine
tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands in females; epididymis, ductus, vas
deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, penis in males)
2. Produce gametes; release hormones that regulate production, other body
functions; mammary glands also produce milk
4. identify the basic life processes of the human body.
0. Metabolism: sum of chemical reactions that occur in the body
0. Anabolism; catabolism
1. Responsiveness: ability to detect and respond to changes to external or internal
environment
2. Movement: motion of body, organs, cells or subcellular structures
3. Growth: increase in bodysize, based on increase in:
1. size of existing cells
2. Number of cells
3. Both
4. Material between cells (as with mineral deposits during bone growth)
4. Differentiation
1. Development of cell from unspecialized (stem cells) to specialized
5. Reproduction: formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, or replacement, or
the prodcution of a new individual
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