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BIOL 1F90 Study Guide - Final Guide: Pancreatic Lipase Family, Deuterostome, Cycad

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Fiona Hunter
Study Guide

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`Plesiomorphic: refers to the ancestral/primitive character state of a group
under consideration. It is a trait that is shared by some members of a group AND
the common ancestor, but it is not unique to that group
Example: reptiles are exothermic
Bryophyte: an informal term that collectively describes liverworts, mosses, and
hornworts, they do not reflect a true clade but it is useful for expressing the
common structural, reproductive and ecological features of the group
Example: commonly small and in moist/damp environments
Sporopollenin: Tough material within the cell wall of plant spores. This durable
polymer layer prevents dehydration and provides protection while transport
through air. When a desired environment is reached, the wall will break open and
release gametophytes to complete development
Micropyle: A small opening on the surface of an ovule through which the pollen
tube enters during pollen germination.
Example: During germination, a pollen grain produces a pollen tube that contains
2 sperm cells. The tube grows through the style and into the ovary via the
micropyle. When in the ovary, the sperm is delivered to the female gametophyte
therefore undergoing fertilization.
Amylase: An enzyme that initiates the digestion of polysaccharides. Amylase is
present in saliva and hydrolyzes starch into sugars.
Example: Amylase at work! If you chew on a starchy cracker and let it sit in your
mouth for a while, it will begin to taste sweet.
Homeostasis: The process of adjusting to the external environment while
maintaining a stable internal environment. Animals use two methods to maintain
homeostasis: conforming and regulating.
Rugae: Refers to a series of ridges that are produced by foldings in the wall of
organs. It is most commonly seen on the inner surface of the stomach or
intestine and increases the surface area of the surface.
Example: This allows tissues/organs to maximize the amount of solute that can
be absorbed (intestine/stomach), exchange of O2 and CO2 with the environment
(frog skin), communicate with neighbouring cells (nerve cells)
Cladogenesis: The division of a parent species into two or more distinct species.
This differs from angenesis where a single species is transformed into another
over many generations.
Example: Cladogenesis is represented by Darwin’s finches. A single South
American species divided into several other species after reaching the Galapago
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Stromatolite: a solid structure created by single celled microbes called
cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria form colonies and trap sediment with their
sticky surface coating. It becomes layers of rock, creating fossils.
Ex: when an organism becomes a fossil, its impression is left on sediments of
stomatolites and the deeper in a stomalitte, the older the fossil
K/T Boundary: 65 million years ago a meteorite came crashing down into earth
(mexico). Marks the end of the cretaceous period and the beginning of the
tertiary period
Homology: Refers to similarities among various species that occur because the
species are derived from a common ancestor
Example. A bats wing, human arm, cats foreleg
Endosperm: nutrient seed tissue that increases the efficiency by which food is
stored in the seeds of flowing plants (angiosperms)
Example, surrounds an embryo after fertilization and supplies it with food
Haploid Gametophyte: undergoes mitosis, so it develops from a haploid spore
and all gametes are genetically identical because it only has one set of
Example, bryophytes
Conidia: asexual, non-motile spores of a fungus
Example. Generated through mitosis. Chlamydoconidia
Deuterostome: development of an embryo through radial cleavage, which is
indeterminate cleavage and the blastopores, becomes the anus
Ex, human formation of complete embryos
Synapomorphy: shared derived character, a trait that is shared by a group of
organisms but not by distant ancestor
Example, dolphins and whales
Monophyletic group: group of species (taxon) consisting of the most recent
common ancestor and its decedents
Example, a clade of finches
Abomasum: true stomach, fourth and final compartment in the ruminants.
Containing the microbial digestion by product
Spirochete: a flexible spirally twisted bacterium
Example: causes syphilis
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