Male honeybees use the ultimate plug
o Their genitalia explodes during sex
Flowers are nothing more than sex machines
Flower sex organs
o STAMENS (male) – produce sperm
o PISTIL (female) – produces eggs
o Stigma – big part of female
o Style – long neck
o Ovary – holds the eggs
Do plants have a penis or an intromittent organ? YES!
POLLEN GRAINS are the floral equivalent of an intromittent organ
DOUBLE FERTILIZATION EVENT is unique to plants
PROBLEM: How do plants get the pollen grains near the eggs?
o Grain pollen can be carried by wind
Grasses and sedges also use ANEMOPHILY
Ragweed is pollinated
Goldenrod is not
Conifer pollen is also wind-carried
o Disadvantage: not guaranteed
Another way to deliver
o Animals deliver the pollen for them - POLLINATORS
o Pollination by insects is called entomophily
Why do pollinators help flowers have sex?
o They are bribed!
o What food?
POLLEN attracts some insects, such as Hover Flies
Pollinated by bees
o Poricidal pore (<39:13)
Butterflies love sugar water and nectar (Giant Swallowtail nectaring)
Nectar is held in NECTARIES
o Buttercup NECTARIES are small sleeves at the base of each petal
o Nectar is held in SHALLOW CUPS in Milkwe