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BIOL 1902 (62)

Nov 22.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1902
Professor
Michael Runtz

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 Male honeybees use the ultimate plug o Their genitalia explodes during sex  Flowers are nothing more than sex machines  Flower sex organs o STAMENS (male) – produce sperm o PISTIL (female) – produces eggs o Stigma – big part of female o Style – long neck o Ovary – holds the eggs  Do plants have a penis or an intromittent organ? YES!  POLLEN GRAINS are the floral equivalent of an intromittent organ  DOUBLE FERTILIZATION EVENT is unique to plants  PROBLEM: How do plants get the pollen grains near the eggs? o Grain pollen can be carried by wind  Grasses and sedges also use ANEMOPHILY  Ragweed is pollinated  Goldenrod is not  Conifer pollen is also wind-carried o Disadvantage: not guaranteed  Another way to deliver o Animals deliver the pollen for them - POLLINATORS  Honeybees o Pollination by insects is called entomophily  Why do pollinators help flowers have sex? o They are bribed! o What food?  Nectar  POLLEN attracts some insects, such as Hover Flies  Pollinated by bees o Poricidal pore (<39:13)  Butterflies love sugar water and nectar (Giant Swallowtail nectaring)  Nectar is held in NECTARIES o Buttercup NECTARIES are small sleeves at the base of each petal o Nectar is held in SHALLOW CUPS in Milkwe
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