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Summaries.docx

by OneClass286386 , Winter 2014
9 Pages
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Winter 2014

Department
Business
Course Code
BUSI 3309
Professor
all

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Challenges to Organizing Projects: Uniqueness and short duration of project vs. long-term organizational activities | Multidisciplinary and cross-functional
nature of projects creates authority and responsibility dilemmas.
Appropriate PM Structure: balances the needs of the project with the needs of the organization
Structures
Functional
oDifferent segments of the project are delegated to respective functional units
oCoordination maintained through normal management channels
oUsed when the interest of one functional area dominates the project/functional area has a dominant interest in the project’s success
Matrix
oHybrid organizational structure is overlaid on the normal functional structure
Two chains of command (functional and project)
Project participants report to both managers
oMatrix structure optimizes the use of resources
Allows for participation on multiple projects while performing normal functional duties
Achieves a greater integration of expertise and project requirements
oWeak: Authority of the functional manager predominates and the project manager has indirect authority
oBalance: Traditional matrix form in which the project manager sets the overall plan and the functional manager determines how work
is to be done
oStrong: Resembles a project team in which the project manager has broader control and functional departments act as
subcontractors
Projectized
oTeams operate as a separate units under the leadership of a PM
oFunctional departments are responsible for providing support for its teams
Network
oAn alliance of several organizations for the purpose of creating products/services: A hub firm with strong core competencies
outsources key activities to a collaborative cluster of satellite organizations (such as construction projects)
Project lifecycle: Initiation & concept evaluation  Project  Post-project maintenance & operations
Governance: Selection & Investment authority  Division points & monitoring  Benefits realization; outcomes management
Typical Project Documents
Project Management Plan: How
the project will be managed, does
not include the details.
Project Plan: The detailed project
information that will be used to
process and execute the project
deliverable.
Project Charter : Created as an
initiation document either just before
it starts or in the very early life of the
project. Authorizes the PM to initiate
and lead the project. Roles &
responsibilities. Contains
governance, decision making
processes and rules, and escalation
channels.
Business Case: Document that “sells”
the product/service concept with details
BEFORE the project is a project.
Conducted after the general proposal
has been accepted by the organization.
Provides macro estimates (+/- 50%
estimates). High level descriptions,
plans and strategic fit. Benefits?
Project Management Plan
includes: Scope Management
Plan, Schedule, Cost, Risk,
Stakeholder, Communications,
Procurement, HR, Integration and
Scope Management
Scope Planning; Outcome: Scope statement
Scope Definition; Define the project scope, establish priorities, create the WBS, integrate the WBS with the organization, code the WBS for the
I.S.
Scope Verification; Outcome: Formal acceptance by stakeholders
Scope Change Control; Outcome: Scope changes & lessons learned
- Project Scope: End result or mission of the project – in tangible and measurable terms
- Scope Statement: Clearly define the deliverable(s) for the end user; focus the project on successful completion of its goals, used by the project owner
as a planning tool and measurement of project success. Consists of project objectives, description/deliverables (high level requirements, limits and
exclusions), and business need (problem, justification), Tools: Product Analysis, Cost/Benefit Analysis, Alternatives identification, Expert judgment, and
social media.
- Establishing Project Priorities: Causes of project trade-offs (shifts in the relative importance of criterion related to cost, time, and performance
parameters); Managing the priorities of project trade-offs (Constraints, Enhancements, and Acceptances). Triple constraint: Cost, Scope, and Time. Be
wary of scope creep
- Creating the WBS: An hierarchical outline that identifies the products and work elements involved in a project, defines the relationship of the final
deliverable, and each descending level in the WBS (not how long, not who, and not how much) provides increasingly detailed definition of the project
deliverables. Top-down technique; Bottom-up technique; Random technique. Work package: Lowest level in the WBS (output oriented, must be
assignable). Identifiers.
- Integrating the WBS with the organization. OBS: Depicts how the firm is organized to discharge its work responsibility for a project, and provides a
framework to summarize organization work unit performance. Cost account: the intersection of the WBS and the OBS that is a budgetary control point
for work packages.
- Coding the WBS for the I.S. Coding System identifies: levels and elements of the WBS, organization elements, work packages, and budget and cost
information
GANTT Chart: A project planning tool that can be used to represent the timing and tasks required to complete a project.
Process Breakdown Structure
Process-oriented projects: Driven by a series of steps of phases in which one phase affects the next phase
Process Breakdown Structure (PBS): Defines deliverables as outputs required to move to the next phase, often defined at the program level,
and checklists for managing PBS
WBS = PM
OBS = HR
PBS = PMO, Business Unit
Project Network: A flow chart that graphically depicts the sequence, interdependencies, and start and finish times of the project job plan of activities that
is the critical path through the network;
Basis for scheduling resources
Estimate of the project’s duration
Basis for budgeting CF
Puts the WBS on a time continuum
Identifies activities that are critical, dependent, and/or parallel
Used to create an overall schedule plan, and manage it
Terminology
Activity: An element of the project that requires time
Event: The result of completing one or more activity (milestones) the start of completion of an activity; does not take time
Network: A combination of all activities and events
Predecessor: Activities that come before a specific activity
Successor: Activities that follow a specific activity
Merge activity: An activity that has two or more preceding activities on which it depends
Parallel activity: Activity that can occur independently and, if desired, not at the same time
Burst activity: Activity that has more than one activity immediately following it

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Description
Challenges to Organizing Projects Uniqueness and short duration of project vs longterm organizational activitiesMultidisciplinary and crossfunctional nature of projects creates authority and responsibility dilemmas Appropriate PM Structure balances the needs of the project with the needs of the organizationStructuresFunctionaloDifferent segments of the project are delegated to respective functional unitsoCoordination maintained through normal management channelsoUsed when the interest of one functional area dominates the projectfunctional area has a dominant interest in the projects successMatrixoHybrid organizational structure is overlaid on the normal functional structureTwo chains of command functional and projectProject participants report to both managersoMatrix structure optimizes the use of resourcesAllows for participation on multiple projects while performing normal functional dutiesAchieves a greater integration of expertise and project requirementsoWeak Authority of the functional manager predominates and the project manager has indirect authorityoBalance Traditional matrix form in which the project manager sets the overall plan and the functional manager determines how work is to be doneoStrong Resembles a project team in which the project manager has broader control and functional departments act as subcontractors ProjectizedoTeams operate as a separate units under the leadership of a PMoFunctional departments are responsible for providing support for its teamsNetworkoAn alliance of several organizations for the purpose of creating productsservices A hub firm with strong core competencies outsources key activities to a collaborative cluster of satellite organizations such as construction projectsProject lifecycle Initiationconcept evaluationProjectPostproject maintenanceoperationsGovernance SelectionInvestment authorityDivision pointsmonitoringBenefits realization outcomes managementTypical Project DocumentsProject Charter Created as an Project Management Plan HowBusiness CaseDocument that sells Project Management Plan initiation document either just before the project will be managed does the productservice concept with details it starts or in the very early life of the includes Scope Management BEFORE the project is a project not include the details project Authorizes the PM to initiate Plan Schedule Cost Risk Conducted after the general proposal and lead the project RolesProject Plan The detailed project Stakeholder Communications has been accepted by the organization responsibilities Contains information that will be used to Provides macro estimates50 Procurement HR Integration and governance decision making process and execute the project estimates High level descriptions processes and rules and escalation deliverable plans and strategic fit Benefitschannels
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