Utilitarianism (Jeremy Bentham)
-Benefits a large number of people, it is right. If it is detrimental (yang
merusak/mengganggu) to a larger number, then it is wrong.
-Everyone counts equally under utilitarianism, no favoritism
-Some people do not benefit.
-Role of ones character and the virtues that ones character embodies.
-Looks at the virtue or moral character of the person carrying out an action, rather than
ethical duties or rules, of the consequence of particular actions.
-Good: centers ethics of the person and what it means to be human,
-Bad: Doesn’t provide clear guidance, on what to do in moral dilemmas.
Ethics of Care:
-decisions based on who is most vulnerable, and try to understand the context
-The virtues and values of women focus on connectedness among people
-Healthy relationships, even at sacrifice to self. Win-win for everyone.
Comparison to ethics of justice
-Men are interested in justice, rights and fairness and freedoms.
-Do the right thing.
-Does it treat every stakeholder truthfully with respect and integrity?
-Emphasize the motives behind an action and individual rights rather than the
-Always be honest, keep promises, respect people and property.
-Moral evaluation of our actions was concerned were important. Consequences did not
- Beneficence: Whatever you do, insure maximum benefits, more good than harm. ---
Beneficence is action that is done for the benefit of others. Beneficent actions can be
taken to help prevent or remove harms or to simply improve the situation of others.
-Non-maleficence: do the least harm possible. Wrong is wrong.
“do no harm.”.
- Autonomy: (liberty: free speech and claim: (safety, education, healthcare) individual
freedom is the basis for the modern concept of bioethics. This freedom, usually spoken of
as autonomy, is the principle that a person should be free to make his or her own
- Justice: society or a larger group owes to its individual members in proportion to its needs. Society has a duty to the individual. Treat equals equally but the unequal
unequally but to their advantage. Eg: handicap parking.
- Fidelity: The principle of fidelity broadly requires that we act in ways that are loyal.
This includes keeping our promises, doing what is expected of us, performing our duties
and being trustworthy.
-Veracity: Veracity is the principle of truth telling, and it is grounded in respect for
persons and the concept of autonomy. In order for a person to make fully rational
choices, he or she must have the information relevant to his or her decision.
Moreover, this information must be as clear and understandable as possible.
Truth telling is violated in at least two ways. The first is by the act of lying, or the
deliberate exchange of erroneous information. However, the principle of veracity is also
violated by omission, the deliberate withholding of all or portions of the truth. Finally,
the principle of veracity can also be violated by the deliberate cloaking of information in
jargon or language that fails to convey information in a way that can be understood by the
recipient or that intentionally misleads the recipient.
(Fidelity and Veracity arose within Business Ethics)
Judge Abella laws became foundation of employment equity act.
· Sometimes blindness (JFK)
· Sometimes consciousness as blindness is not enough (Linden Johnson,
Give slight edge to minorities
-The purpose of this Act is to achieve equality in the workplace so that no person shall be
denied employment opportunities or benefits for reasons:
-But also requires special measures and the accommodation of differences:
Employment Equity Act
2) People with disabilities
3) Aboriginal people,
4) Visible minorities
-Refers to policies that take factors including "race, color, religion, gender, sexual
orientation, or national origin into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented
group "in areas of employment, education, and business usually justified as countering
the effects of a history of discrimination. Diversity
Competitive Advantages of Diversity
1. Attract and retain diverse customers. (More customers)
2. Attract and retain diverse employees. (More great workers to choose from)
3. To achieve cost reductions. (fewer employee grievances)
4. To enhance decision making, problem solving, creativity. (different outlooks
5. To increase stockholder goodwill. (Goodwill from media > free advertising)
Four layers of diversity:
1.Internal personality dimensions (personality)
2. Unchanging External Dimensions (race)
3. Evolving external dimensions (old young)
4. Organization dimensions (like management)
Norman Bowie – Not justified unless following characteristics are true
1. It is done base on an appropriate moral motive
2. The person has exhausted all internal channels for dissent
3. The person’s belief regarding the inappropriate conduct is based on
evidence that would persuade a reasonable person
4. The person has carefully analyzed the situation to determine the
serious nature of the violation, the immediacy of the violation and the
specificity of the violation
5. The person’s action is commensurate with responsibility for avoiding
and/or exposing moral violations
6. The person’s action has some chance of success, exposing and/or
avoiding the moral violation
Richard DeGeorge – Permissible if 1, 2, 3 are true/Obligatory if all are true
1. There is serious and considerable risk or harm to the public
2. The person reports the problem to his/her immediate superior, and
nothing is done to fix it
3. The person exhausts all channels in the corporation or organization,
and still nothing is done to fix the problem
4. The person has documented evidence that would convince a
5. The person has good reason to believe that going public will change
things and prevent harm
2002 = Year of the Whistleblower
· Sharon Watkins – Enron (reluctant whistleblower)
· Colleen Rowlie – FBI (9/11 conspirator should have been investigated)
· Cynthia Cooper – WorldCom (Creative Bookkeeping – 3.8B coverup)
· Obligatory - (Prof doesn’t agree) · Forbidden - (Prof doesn’t agree)
When to blow the whistle:
1. Serious harm is involved
2. The whistleblower has already expressed his or her concerns to an immediate superior
3. The whistleblower has exhausted other communications channels within the
4. The whistleblower has convincing, documented evidence.
Problems with whistleblowing:
1. Demotions, criticisms by coworkers, negative performance evaluations, blacklisting
impeding employment, loss of job or forced retirement.
Culture within whistleblowing
Asia – High power distance and loyalty = not many cases of whistleblowing
North America - Individualistic = some cases of whistleblowing
Europe – Employee rights = whistleblowing very accepted
Cost benefit analysis on people’s lives and cost of a product recall
Engineer whistleblower at NASA supplier (“Put on the management hat”)
1986 NASA “Challenger” = Blew up because of O-rings malfunction
Sourced from military
Theory = Good leadership can save organization (Problems with theory)
Leaders aren’t trusted by public (CEO one above used car salesmen)
British High Schools (Strong principle couldn’t raise grades)
Dutch Sport Teams (Coaches)
ABCD Teams - Teams made up of non-stars have the best results
Teams not leaders that make the organization
Code of ethics, conduct, best practices
Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the
difference between 'right' and 'wrong' and in applying that understanding to their
A code of business ethics is like the 10 Commandments, a few general principles to
guide behavior that could fit on one piece of paper or business card.
A code of conduct for employees sets out the procedures to be used in specific ethical situations. The code should address the wide range of legal expectations and ethical risks
unique to the organization or job title and should be continously revised
A code of practice is adopted by a profession or by a governmental or non-governmental
organization to regulate that profession. A code of practice may be styled as a code of
professional responsibility, which will discuss difficult issues, difficult decisions that will
often need to be made, and provide a clear account of what behavior is considered
"ethical" or "correct" or "right" in the circumstances.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 - required all publically traded companies to disclose
whether they had a Code of Ethics for senior financial officers
International Business and Civil Society
Civil Society Groups - (charities, religious groups) they work for the benefit of the
society, they work in the benefit of the other stakeholders that are not being treated in an
ethical way, they help those that don't have much say in the decisions
Charities and Religious Groups - Speak for those without a voice
International business (notes taken during the guest speaker lecture)
- the top 600 multinationals are from Europe and USA
- the richest nations in the world are the top 50
- some corporations are richer than many countries, they are like their own states because
they are so powerful
- if these multinationals are broken (bad apples) its really difficult to know what to do
- large organizations are more likely to be unethical than the smaller organizations
- it is very important to know the stakeholders
o owners and shareholders: they give capital to the organizations
o customers, clients: bring money
o suppliers: provide resources
o employees: provide labour
o home and host governments: provide guidance for business (restrictions,
laws, policies, etc.)
o competitors: provide the business environment with competitive nature
o civil society organizations, non-governmental organizations (charities,
religious groups) they work for the benefit of the society, they work in the
benefit of the other stakeholders that are not being treated in an ethical
way, they help those that don't have much say in the decisions
- all of the stakeholders have their own rights
- in international business the important stakeholders are home and host gov'ts Privacy and confidentiality
The term privacy refers to the limited access to a person, the right of an individual to be
left alone, and the right to keep certain information from disclosure to other individuals.
Privacy would encompass an individual’s right to decide whether to receive certain
information about himself/herself from a third party. It would also involve the
circumstances under which the individual shares information with others.
By contrast, the term confidentiality refers to the right of an individual to prevent the re-