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Final

Notes for Final Exam (everything you need to know)

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Department
Music
Course Code
MUSI 1002
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all

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October 21, 13 Sampling, Meanings and Interpretation - Stan – Eminem (samples Dido – Thank You); the meaning of the original song; only samples the first verse; very dark; social commentary; meaning totally changed from the original song; he chose the sample for the potential meaning; although criticized, skyrocketed Dido’s career - Diamonds Are Forever – Kanye West sample; celebrity status, consumerism turned into a song about blood diamonds in Sierra Leone Shuker chapter 5 - Pop music: refers to any media form that’s self contained and conveys cultural meaning - Includes recording, album covers, music videos, live performances - Textual analysis: identifying and analyzing the formal qualities of texts, their structures, and characteristics. - Intertextuality: a text communicates its meaning only when its situated in relation to other texts - Preferred reading: dominant messages set within the codes and conventions that went into the creation of the text - A song’s meaning is not definite - Context plays a large role in how meanings are interpreted - Cultural meanings are made by consumers - Songs take on a completely different meaning Three forms of text: - Graphic; emphasis on cover art, posters; any promotional material that contribute to advertising/branding - Musical; emphasis on lyrics and music o Musical analysis; tensions in the field of musicology; music context best understood in its social context o Lyric analysis: content analysis deals with the subject matter - Videos; promotional devices; pre-occupation with visual style; abolish traditional boundaries between an image and its real-life event - Rap artists referencing the past; Nas – Can’t forget about you; samples Nat King Cole’s Unforgettable October 23, 13 Genres, covers and authenticity Genres: - A category or type - An organizing element; characteristics, time periods, uses, types of listeners - Defined in part by distinctions made by the music industry - Standardize codes and conventions; musical, lyric, visual, ideological - These codes are fluid - Genres are merging together; new genres Dimensions of popular music genres: - Placed in context of historical roots and social/political context - Stylistic traits in music - Non-musical stylistic traits - Primary audience - The style’s durability; will it continue to develop or is it a passing fad Metagenres; over-arching categories that contain various genres; - Rock, world music, pop  genres; disco – pop; heavy metal rock  subgenres; pop – disco – Euro disco; rock – heavy metal – death metal Musical borrowing and appropriation - Appropriation; the artistic use of another’s work in the creation of a new piece Appropriation in art - Andy Warhol, Campbell’s Soup Cans (1962) - Da Vinci, The Last Supper; Warhol reworked art into new pieces Appropriation in pop music - Remaking pop standards - Early rock & roll: a lot of artists borrowing from the blues - Elvis – Hound Dog actually a remake; multiple artists have remade it; Big Mama Thornton is the original artist Authenticity - Author’s intent - Style, genre manipulation - Musical originality Pop and rock polarized - Pop = lie; love, sex, commercial success - Rock = authentic; musicianship, personal creativity, more valued and authentic Alan Moore (2002) - Authenticity of expression; artificial vs. genuine - Authenticity of experience; listeners’ experience is being validated - Authenticity of execution; genre norms, tradition of performance - Authenticity is credited to the performance rather than decorated within it; value judgment Covers: - Originating moment - Spectrum of copies - Original - Direct copy - Parody - Minor/Major interpretation - Tribute bands trying to recreate the original - Appropriation - Authenticity - Intertextuality - Context; genre, time period, gender, race, location November 6, 13 DOCUMENTARY: - Music videos are vital to the music industry; culture - Controversy; uses female sexuality to advertise and draw attention - The more bizarre, the better, i.e. coated in silver or gold - Women shown dancing around the artist; shown as members of the crowd or band members, shown hanging around the artist - Easy solution found to get attention, regardless of genre - Women can play a role in the narrative of the video; i.e. group sex showing status symbol - Cultural norms - “The most important aspect of a woman is their sexuality” - Women presented as aggressors, hungry for sex - Women using intimate objects when men are absent; they eventually fall apart emotionally until a man comes around to make her feel better - Shown in detail in music videos - When women do wear clothing, it is usually low-cut, lingerie, etc. - Characters drawn straight from adolescent fantasy - Nurses, policewomen, the use of water, the schoolgirl, the cheerleader, car washes, bathtubs, mud fights, girl on girl action etc. - High disrespect; porn resemblance - Money showered on women’s bodies; the idea that a women’s sexuality can be bought and sold by men - Violence, gang violence, racism - Blacks portrayed as out of control [rapists] - Snoop Dogg: portrays himself as a pimp - Porn stars appearing in music videos; porn directors now shooting music videos - Fantasies and what it means to be a man/woman according to the media - Women defining themselves through being shown posing in front of a camera; wanting to be watched and to arouse - Open and willing to whatever a man wants - Women looking in mirrors; if she looks at herself like that, it’s okay for others to do the same; they want to be looked at - Camera angles reinforces this view; shots from above, between legs, and up her skirt - Women are not portrayed as real people with dreams and feelings; they are portrayed as bodies and objects - Not a bad thing; however, in music videos, women are presented as nothing else - Images work their way into the real identity of women; how real women portray themselves/expose themselves - Music ability not the only requirement to make it in the ‘dream world’ - Even artists who portray themselves as innocent and independent “sell out” giving in to the pornographic imagination i.e. Mariah Carey, Jessica Simpson, Christina Aguilera, Gwen Stefani, Jewel, Janet Jackson, etc. - Women also showed as being abused; spanked, pushed against walls, tied up, pushed away, alcohol poured on them, spread across pool tables, kidnapped; women still never say no and welcome this abuse - Men’s violence taking on erotic quality - Verbal abuse turning into physical abuse in real life; central park incident; women not smiling - Sexual assault commonly occurring - Robs women of their humanity; self provoked November 18, 2013 Gender and Sexuality - Accounts of pop as artificial and rock as authentic - Reflect gender hierarchies; pop = women, rock = men Frith and McRobbie, “rock and sexuality” (1978); - Cock rock (hair bands, hard rockers) vs. teeny bop (male pop singer, primarily consumed by girls) - Active (men, rock) vs. passive (women, pop) - Madonna first considered very superficial; compared to Cyndi Lauper in the 80s; “girls just wanna have fun” “material girl” - The definition of authenticity was later challenged; she was seen as being engaged in politics of play - Provocativeness; Madonna one of the first to use her body - Dancing > singing; Madonna in control of her sexuality - Justify My Love; banned on TV stations; displaying sexual acts; using it to appeal to viewers? - Collaborates with artists who are ‘hot’ at the time; Justin Timberlake, Britney Spears, Nicki Minaj - Artists refer to themselves as bitches, pimps - Women taking more ‘manly’ approaches to music and performing - Resistance to the norm November 20,2013 Relations between texts and audiences - The hypodermic syringe model: an early model; the idea that the audience would accept the messages they received because they have no other opinions; brainwashed by the media - Producers  text  audience - The two way text – audience relationship - A text may be structured in a particular way, but it may be decoded by the audience in ways not determined by the text itself - Fluid interaction between a text, its production and its reception. - Authors/producers audience listener text - Cultivation analysis: studies the long term effects of the media on forms of behaviors and attributes; real world consequences Culture: 2 meanings – - The works and practices of artistic and intellectual activity - A way of life Subcultures - Social groups organized around shared interests and practices - Subcultures typically set themselves against other larger social groups 2 components: plastics (dress and music), infrastructural (ritual) - Dick Hebdige: there is a symbolic fit between the values and lifestyles of a group: its personal experience and the musical forms it uses to express or reinforce its main concerns. Disco: - A musical genre - A performance site; dance venue, club - A mode of participation and fandom; DJ and audience - Tied to race, sexuality and location - Emphasis on the body (dance), the DJ and the audience 3 main kinds of disco in the 1970’s: - R&B disco: soul and funk; groups keep gospel oriented vocals; self contained bands already associated with funk - Eurodisco; contained, simple vocals; less syncopated bassline; Donna Summer suggestive moaning example - Pop disco; represented by mainstream pop artists; more commercial, more white, appealed to more mainstream audiences; The Bee Gees - Disco was a subcultural movement that “crossed over” from dance clubs Kopkind, “the dialectic of disco: gay music goes straight” - Rock vs. disco - Depersonalized vs. personalized style - Physicality; the body and sex; DJ plays with audiences emotions; mix starts, builds, builds, break = high point; climax ;) fuck me again with your music - Camp: an object or symbol taken out of context and applied to a new situation; sublime or ridiculous effect; The Village People - Disco Sucks Movement; mass protest leading to the fall of disco; blow ups of disco records in the middle of a field Punk - A cultural style, an attitude by a rebellion against authority and a deliberate rejection of middle-class values - A back to basics rebellion against the perceived artifice and pretension of corporate rock music - 1975-1978 - Lyrical themes: A challenge against established authority; fascist i.e. swastika logo; drugs, suicide, violence - Stripping down of rock to its most basic elements; lower recording aesthetic - The velvet underground, the stooges, new york dolls, patti smith, the ramones, the sex
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