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PSCI 1200 Final: 1200 exam notes

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Political Science
PSCI 1200
Randall Germain

WEEK 2 LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Level of analysis 1 (System level): - Focus: The units of analysis that compose the international system, and the structure of the international system in which the units of analysis are arranged - What are the units of analysis: Global actors (states and non-state actors) - Note: Units of analysis are understood as unitary and rational actors (in the sense that all actors will purse their interests in a logical way regardless of their internal composition (e.g., minimize costs and maximize benefits)) - Example: US and USSR - What is the structure: Anarchy - Assumption: Structure of the system (independent variable) affects the behavior of the units (dependent variable) - Note: Systemic analyses usually direct us to the possibility of conflict or cooperation at the international level - E.g., Game theory Level of analysis 2 (Domestic): - Focus: Internal dynamics and aspects of second-order global actors (state and non- state) - Example: Political culture - Assumption: Internal dynamics and aspects influence the behavior of global actors, as well as their relations - Example: Foreign policies of the United States versus those of North Korea - Note: A focus on the internal aspects/dynamics of global actors is different from systemic analyses, which treat actors as like units - Note on note: This does not mean that domestic analyses discard the idea or rationality, just that that a layer is added to understanding this behavior Level of analysis 3 (Individual): - Focus: Individuals within global actors (state and non-state) - Assumption: Individuals can have a major impact on the behavior of global actors - Example: Trump and the Trudeau cabinet shuffle Note: Not all IR theories would agree that individuals matter How do realists understand international anarchy? A zero-sum environment in which states rationally pursue their self-interests (think relative gains). Because anarchy is a zero-sum environment, conflict is the most likely outcome in the long-term (short-term cooperation is acknowledged). - Example: Security Dilemma What are the core assumptions of realism? - Statism: States are the most important actors; especially, great power states (e.g., the United States, China) - Survival: The primary interest of all states under anarchy is their own survival through the pursuit of security/power - Self-Help: Under anarchy a state can only trust itself - See: Dunne and Schmidt, Chapter 6 in The Globalization of World Politics (6 ed),th 2013. How do realists account for order in anarchy? A condition generated through the maintenance of the balance of power of power, sometimes through violent conflict - Example: WWII How do liberals understand international anarchy? A variable-sum environment in which states and non-state actors rationally pursue their own self-interests (think absolute gains). Because anarchy is variable-sum, cooperation is the most likely outcome in the long-term (the risk of conflict is acknowledged). What are the core assumptions of liberalism? - Democratic governments: Democratic governments represent the people, who are usually adverse to violent conflict (the view od the people and the state’s more general political culture are reflected in its foreign policy) - Economic integration: Through economic integration international actors reap the benefits of the free market, and in so doing the costs of conflict rise - Institutions (established practices and organizations): Institutions establish a common foundation diplomacy and multilateralism How do liberals account for order in anarchy? A condition generated through political agenda- setting and programs of action - Example: Kant’s Perpetual Peace How do constructivists understand international anarchy? A socially-malleable environment conditioned by the beliefs, identities, expectations and values of state and non-state actors. Prospects for conflict and cooperation are contingent upon the social construction of anarchy itself. - Note: Rationality does not fall by the wayside, it becomes ‘bounded’ What are the core assumptions of constructivism? - Social construction: The social content of the international system (e.g., institutions, norms, values) is socially constructed by state and non-state actors within it (the reverse is also true); these actors also play a key role in constructing each other’s identities (and their consequences). - Example: United States vs. North Korea How do constructivists account for order in anarchy? “Anarchy is what states make of it” - Wendt, 1992 WEEK 6 END OF THE COLD WAR Theories for the post-Cold War period 1 (Fukuyama): - Francis Fukuyama argues that the end of the Cold War marks “the end of history” because it initiates the globalization of the ‘highest’ form of government to which we are all destined, democracy (a linear view of history) - Example: The Gulf War (1991) represents the coming together of many different countries with a common purpose … freedom Theories for the post-Cold War period 2 (Huntington): - Samuel Huntington argues that the end of the Cold War marks the end of ideological conflict and a move towards cultural conflict unleashed by the regionalization of civilizations - Example: 9/11 - Metaphor: Kirk (a character that has only known war between two culturally distinct civilizations, the Federation and the Klingon) Both Fukuyama and Huntington would agree that the US was a central protagonist in the post-Cold War story: - The immediate post-Cold War is a unipolar system characterized by an explosion in the number of potential US allies with Western values - Metaphor: The United Federation of Planets - Caveat: Not trying to be US-centric, but to recognize the major role the US has played in the post-Cold War world period WEEK 7 SECURITY IR Theory and Security (Realism) Argument: in a zero-sum, anarchic environment, composed of self-interested and rational actors, states must rely on themselves to ensure their own survival given the limited options at their disposal. The way to do that is security and power maximization. o Statism: Great powers are the principle actors in security because of the economic and military advantages they boast. o Survival: States maximize power/security in anarchy to achieve their survival. However, a relative increase in security for one state can result in a relative decrease for another state, leading to security dilemma. o Self-Help: Because states can only rely on themselves, their primary means of power/security maximization and through economic and military power. IR Theory and Security (Liberalism) Argument: In a variable-sum, anarchic environment, self-interested and rational actors are afforded options to maintain international order and do so through organizations and institutions (e.g., Democratic Peace Theory) - Democracies: Democracies foster cooperation because of an inside-outside dynamic inherent to representative governments - Economic integration: Economic cooperation deepens ties with other actors and raises the costs of war - China and the global economic infrastructure - Institutions: Major organizations and established practices afford a space for multilateralism and overcoming barriers (in most cases) - United Nations; international law IR theory and security (Constructivism) Argument: Anarchy is a socially-constructed space in which interests and identities are malleable, allowing for a shifting security landscape (a landscape that can shift for the better or for the worse) - Social construction: Just as the way our perceptions change, so too can our perceptions of the world. In short, we construct the world according to our own perspectives, identities and interests. - Securitization refers to a process by which issues become understood as security issues (e.g., HIV/AIDS) Power 1 (Economic): - Coercive actions taken to directly affect the economy of another state/actor (usually taken by Great Powers with the requisite economic might) - Example: Sanctions used to alter the behavior of others - Note: Sanctions tend to be ineffective as the targeted regime does not typically bear the brunt of them - Constructive actions used to promote good economic relations - Soft power: Getting others to see eye-to-eye with you on shared interests - Note: The term smart power (“ensuring that military foreign policy efforts are complemented by equivalent diplomatic and developmental initiatives” Spiegel et al 235) has begun to replace ‘soft power (some criticize ‘soft power’ as too ambiguous) - Leveraging resources for diplomatic gain - Oil and OPEC - China and Rare Earth Elements Power 2 (Military): - Coercion: Actions taken with the purpose of influencing an actor to behave against its own will (this can be achieved via deterrence as well) - Direct: US intervention in Iraq - Indirect: Threat of military intervention - Defence: Actions taken against an aggressor (proactive and retroactive) - France in WWI - Defensive alliance - Warfare following invasion - Deterrence: Threat of action with the purpose of preventing aggression towards oneself - MAD Power 3 (Political Will): - Political will is the idea that an actor has the ‘stomach’ to engage in violent conflict - Political will is unique in that the great powers have no distinct advantage - Political will has proven a key determinant in conflict that can allow a weaker military power to ‘win’ - Vietnam - Perception of will are also important as a failure to hold credibility can entice aggressive behavior - US actions in Somalia and the attacks of 9/11 TRADE WEEK 9 Realism: Mercantilism (trade and realism): is the extreme form of this behavior whereby a state seeks positive balances of trade, often through protectionist policies that encourage self-sufficiency. For liberals the greatest challenge to free trade is collective action, not self-interest - Example: Stag Hunt, Prisoners Dilemma - Methods to overcome collective action problem include: - Reciprocity: expectations of future relations - Regimes: formal institutions that establish common incentives for participating actors - International law: formal rules that codify right conduct, often with review committees and conventions - Interdependence: reliance on one another - Hegemonic stability theory(ish): a hegemon establish the conditions necessary for free trade out of sheer self-interest and in doing so establishes global economic stability, but that hegemon will eventually lose power relative to others benefitting from the system (another hegemon will replace the first) Theory and Trade (Constructivism) - The notion that economic activity is constituted by ideas (currently these ideas are typified by neoliberal economic assumptions) - Note: All ideas can/do change over time and lead to different outcomes/actions - Example: Soviet vs. US economic models DEVELOPMENT WEEK 9 Theories of development 1 (Modernization theory): - With a focus on the political/economic history of Europe modernization theory draws a distinction between ‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ societies - Traditional society: primarily agricultural and politically/economically insular - Modern society: primarily urban and political/economically ‘extroverted’ - For a traditional society to become modern it must open itself to democracy (allows for new ideas and innovation) and open itself economically (foster efficiency, new technologies, etc.) - At the core of this approach is global trade, which is seen as a medium for markets and political views - Internal challenges: - Demographic transition: Shifts from high to low birth rates results in a period marked by a very old population carrying social costs - Urbanization: Urbanization as ghettoization due to a deficiency in resources - External criticisms: - Can we really copy Europe’s path (consider colonialism)? - Traditional institutions do not easily wane (consider conventional roles of men and women)? - Eurocentrism (consider non-European entities like China) - trade is biased (recall dependency theory) - Tangible mechanisms for promoting development: - 1990s see a backfiring of conventional economic strategies - Example: World Bank and IMF loans result in the undercutting of social programs and a deepening of debt (funds come with conditionalities that undercut the social infrastructure that further undercuts the health of the workforce, thus further indebting countries who now have to payback IMF/WB loans). In the 2000s the World Bank and IMF recognized these issues and began rectifying them (e.g., more stringent loaning policies in terms of who may have access to funds; ‘greener’ initiatives) - 2000s see rise of the holistic/social approach, accompanied with: - New technologies: Cell phones - Microfinance: Small-scale loans - Link to Kiva: - ‘Courage’: Fighting corruption WEEK 10! POPULATION, MIGRATION, HEALTH Population growth 1 (Increase): - From the inception of the human species to the year 1900 the global population increased from 0 to 1.7 billion; from 1900 to 2011 it grew from 1.7 billion to 7 billion - LDC’s account for 97% of growth due to: high birth rates and young populations - Rapid population growth can be attributed to improved sanitation and medical services Population growth 2 (Implications: general): - Rapid population growth leads to a ‘youth bulge’, which can result in: - Domestic strife and conflict - Exacerbation of social problems (e.g., youth unemployment) - WB data: - Transition from a youth bulge to an elderly population and the exacerbation of social problems (e.g., pensions) Population growth 3 (Implications: urbanization): - Cities are the central nodes for tapping into the global economy, making them attractive for industry -> jobs -> people - It is projected that the number of megacities-cities with populations of 10 million plus-will grow from 2 in 1970 to 37 in 2025 - Cities experiencing this growth are usually underequipped to deal with such booms in population: - Ghettoization - Municipal challenges (e.g., transportation, affordable housing, crime) Population growth 4 (What’s being done?): - UN-led conferences on population growth including the International Conference on Population and Development, 1994: - The conference links population growth with development: the need to reduce/stabilize population to advance economic development - A twenty year program of action is adopted by the 179 countries that puts an emphasis on gender equality and the need to empower women: - Women as central figures in family planning - Other mechanisms to control population growth include contraception Despite being a seemingly straightforward solution, only ¼ of people in Africa used contraceptive in the second decade of the 21 century Population growth 5 (Politics): - Complications from pregnancy/childbirth result in the deaths of 500,000 women each year (most in low-income settings due to substandard care) - 20 million abortions are performed in unsafe settings leading to the death of 47,00 women annually - Although most buy-into family planning the methods by which it is attained are debated -
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