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Political Science
PSCI 2601
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PSCI 2601 FINAL EXAM REVIEWWeek 9 War and Security CH 13 14 Revolution in military affairs RMA p220the concept became popular after the American victory of the Gulf War in 1991 Superior technology and doctrine appeared to give the USA an almost effortless victory Thus RMA suggests that future possession of advanced military technology like weapons and space satellites would give victory to the state that had them Another recent example is that of the Iraq War 2003 where not only American technology proved to be superior to that of its opponents but also superior operational doctrine Computing and space technology allowed the USA to get information about the enemy thus they showed detailed and instant control over the developing battle Opponents find themselves helplessAsymmetric warfare p221When two combatants are not symmetricalnot identical unequal in overall terms of military power strategy tactics and economic power resources The topic has become a topic of great interest since the repeated attacks by Islamic terrorist groups against the USThis is in contrast to symmetric warfare where two powers have similar military power and resources and rely on tactics that are similar overall differing only in details and execution Overwhelming force such as US or Great Britain will dominate the opponent side such as the Islamic states The opponents with no access to RMA technology are likely to use asymmetric warfare to fight the war on their own termsPostWestphalian Warp 225 Before it was Interstate and now it is both inter and Intrastate warfare wars fought within the country typical in the postcold war period that is aimed neither at the sovereignty of an enemy state nor at seizing control of the state apparatus of the country in which it is being wagedWars fought over identity and ethnic issues Now fought within the country Example Rwanda Practice of genocide not to acquire territory but to eradicate an opposing identityWestphalian statesthink of traditional state sovereignty systemPostWestphalian means the state is no longer absoluteContested nature of security p233Causes of war way of peace is to have interdependence liberalism trying to make states intertwine the interest of states with each other Example Germany and France France invades Germany then Germany invades France goes on for 120 years Now the idea of war between the two is unthinkable They created interdependence versus balance of power Realiststructure of system is to have stability Seen to be the most efficient to secure national security Key approaches to resolving issues of in security 1Collective securityto prevent or limit conflict between states by suggesting that all states agree to come to the defense of any one state that is the victim of 1PSCI 2601 FINAL EXAM REVIEWaggression It will create a peaceful environment because all states will come to the aid of the victim This was the organizing principle of the League of Nations 2Common security stepping stonesrefers to the view that the security of any single state rests on the common security of all states in the region France is not secure unless Belgium is secure Canada is not secure unless USA is secureIts trying to solidify a norm of common security among everyone 3Cooperative security stepping stones to the security communityis the view that the security of any state can only be achieved through direct cooperation with another stateThe only way for any state to achieve security is through direct cooperation and in some aspects intervention4Security communities p238A region in which a largescale use of violence such as war has become very unlikely or even unthinkable Strong institutions and practices that lead to a dependable expectation of peaceable changeDespite conflicts between two states they still work within cooperation Example Canadas security became intertwined with Americas securityConflicts between the US and Canada will be resolved within a peaceful manner NATO states trust one another to resolve conflicts without war The emphasis on the structure of shared knowledge is important to constructivist thinking Copenhagen schoolBarry Buzan Ole Waever and Jaap de Wilde1 Securitization theory p240Argues that boundaries of security are defined by speech acts and therefore a social constructionA synthesis of constructivist and classical political realism in its approach to international security While classical approaches of security focus on the material dispositions of the threat including distribution of power military capabilities and polarity securitization examines how a certain issue is transformed by an actor into a matter of security Securitization is an extreme version of politicization that enables the use of extraordinary means in the name of security For the securitizing act to be successful it must be accepted by the audience Securitization studies aims to understand who securitizes on what issues threats for whom referent object why with what results and not least under what conditions2Speech act theorycomes out of social constructivism Speech acts are simple statements 1Locutionary acts the act of saying something oExample Professor constantly talking right now To utter something This is red 2
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