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PSYC 1001 Midterm: Term Test 2 - Fall 2017Premium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1001
Professor
Bruce Tsuji
Study Guide
Midterm

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Carleton University
PSYC 1001
Introduction to Psychology I
Fall 2017
Term Test 2
Prof: Bruce Tsuji
Exam Guide

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A. Sensation & perception.
Sensation versus Perception
Sensation
Perception
Passive process
Active process
Detect physical energy
from environment
Actively organizes
sensation
Transmitted to brain
Interpreted by brain
Bottom-up
Top-down
Bottom-up processing
oAutomatic, parallel; sensation
oComponents of stimulus detected by sensory receptors.
oBits of information transmitted to brain, combined & assembled into whole pattern that a
person perceives.
Top-down processing
oNon-automatic, serial; perception
oInfluenced by past experience & knowledge
oHelps find meaningful links between individual elements taken in by sensory receptors.
What demands more cognitive processing?
o Seeing an apple or reaching for that apple?
oKnowing that you are alive or determining (like a doctor) that a patient is alive?
oWatching the Simpsons or writing an episode of the Simpsons?
oFlirting with someone or having dinner with their parents for the first time?
B. Psychophysics.
Absolute Threshold
oDifference between not perceiving & just being able to perceive a stimulus.
oMinimum sensory stimulation that can be detected 50% of time.
Candle flame 50 km away
Watch ticking 6 meters away
1 tsp of sugar dissolved in 7.6 litres of water
1 drop of perfume in a 3-room house
Flys wing falling 1 cm on your cheek
Difference Threshold
oSmallest increase or decrease in stimulus for just noticeable difference (JND)
detectable 50% of time.
oJND a percentage of total value of stimulus. E.g. JND for bag potatoes vs a feather?
Sensation and Perception

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Signal Detection Theory
oDetection of stimulus depends on more than physical intensity of stimulus & sensory
abilities of observer. Fatigue, expectancy, urgency.
oDecision making about stimuli in presence of uncertainty depends on criterion.
Signal detection theory
oNoticing something versus noise
oDecision process, e.g. radiology
Transduction
oProcess by which sensory receptors convert stimulation into neural impulses
oSensory receptors detect and respond to various stimuli
Sensory Adaptation
oProcess of becoming less sensitive to an unchanging sensory stimulus over time
oExamples? Cold, heat, loud music
C. Visual system.
Eye
o
How Eye Works
oLight reflects off objects, passes thru cornea, pupil, lens & focus on retina & fovea.
oCiliary muscles alter shape of lens.
oReceptors (rods & cones), convert (transduce) light into neural signals.
oCones (6 million) provide colour & detail.
oRods (120 million) provide night vision, better in dim light.
oDetailed vision best at fovea, where cones most common
Binocular vision
oInfo from each eye crosses at optic chiasm.
oEach brain hemisphere sees ½ of visual field.
Visual Processing in the Brain
oDorsal pathway where info (e.g., location, movement, depth)
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