The Four “Humors”
An imbalance or deficiency of any of these four distinct bodily fluids, directly
influences their temperature, personality and health. (Black bile, yellow bile,
Sanguine: too much blood. Arrogant, indulgent. Spring. Liver.
Phlegmatic: too much phlegm. Calm unemotional. Winter. Brain, lungs.
Choleric: too much yellow bile. Ambitious, energetic. Summer. Spleen.
Melancholic: too much black bile. Thoughtful, pondering, depressed/dysthymic.
Fall. Gall bladder.
Hypnosis- Accessing the Unconscious
Acording to john, its all a lie.
James Braid coined the term hypnosis, a nervous sleep
Altered or “special” state of consciousness functionally different from waking.
Access to unconscious-Freud-Hypnosis is the “Royal Road to the unconscious”
Structuralism (Wundt, Titchener)
Understanding the basic elements or “Structures” of mental life
Emphasis on “functions” of the mind and behaviour adapting to the
Functions of purpose of consciousness.
Mind flexible and fluid
“Stream of consciousness”
Seven Psychological Approaches
Behavioural Neuroscience: Centrality of the brain and nervous system in
understanding behaviour (biological)
Evolutionary Psychology: Importance of adaptation reproduction and “survival
of the fittest”
Cognitive: Mental processes involved in knowing
Psychodynamic: Unconscious processes
Humanistic: Seek self-actualisation, personal value and meaning
Sociocultural: Social and cultural determinants of behaviour
Behavioural: Study of observable behaviour
B C P B SHE
Personality is “Psychodynamic” in nature
• Personality is primarily unconscious, develops In stages. And early
experiences often shape it.
Psychoanalytic theory • Freuds psychodynamic perspective
• Conscious and unconscious
• Psychoanalysis: a clinical method for treating psychopathy through
dialogue between a patient and psychoanalyst.
• Major components of personality:
Immediacy of reward
Delay of gratification
• Defence Mechanisms
Personality Devolopment According to Freud
• Oral stage (first 18 months)
• Anal Stage ( 18to 36 months)
• Phallic stage (3-6 years)
• Latency Stage( 6 to puberty)
• Genital Stage (Adolescence to adulthood)
A person however can be stuck in a particular developmental stage
Hysteria: neurological symptoms with no neurological basis
• Freudian Slip. Reflective of unconscious processes
• What someone is really thinking not a simple mistake or mis-spoken word
Behaviourism (Watson and Skinner)
• Radical Behaviourism
• Focus on objective, observable behaviour
• Learned: Behaviour shaped by experience and determined by
environment • Testable, Empirical
• Rejection of subjective experience(and unconscious processes)
• Conditioning, reinforcement, learning
Cognitive-Social Theory (Albert Bandura/Walter Mischel)
• Interaction between cognitive factors, environment, behaviour
• Role theory (sarbin)
• Personalitty is learned
• Locus of control
o Internal (blames self for actions. Believes life is controlled by
internal factors. )
o External (blames external factors)
Humanish (Carl Rogers –johns hero*)
• Unconditional positive regard
• Many people have difficulty accepting their own innately positive feelings
• Link to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Trait Theories ( Hans J. Eysenck)
• Stable-Unstable (neurotic)
Big Five Factors OCEAN
• Neuroticism (Emotional Stability)
Chapter 2- Research Methods
Ethics in Research
• Respect for persons (value of human beings)
• Concern for welfare (quality of experience in life)
• Justice (treating people fairly and equitably)
• Informed consent
• Mandatory Ethics Review ( full disclosure of all experimental procedures)
Scientific Approach to Psychology Process
• March Deep Pas