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Psychology 1001 Midterm Review.docx

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Carleton University
PSYC 1001

Psychology 1001 Midterm Review CHAPTER 1 Applied Psychology the branch of psychology that is concerned with everyday practical problems Behaviour any overt response or activity or an organism Behaviourism a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour Clinical psychology the branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge Critical Thinking the use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the probability of a positive outcome Culture the widely shared customs beliefs values norms institutions and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations Empiricism the knowledge that is acquired through experience and observation Ethnocentrism the tendency to view ones own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways Evolutionary psychology examines behavioural processes in terms their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations Functionalism based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than structure Humanism theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and potential for potential growth Introspection the careful systematic self observation of ones own conscious mind and experience Natural selection closely linked with Darwin heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage and is more likely to be passed on to future generations Positive psychology uses theory and research to better understand the positive adaptive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence Psychiatry a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
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