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PSYC1001Q_Introduction to Psychology II_John Weekes_Winter 2010 (Full sets of lecture notes, very useful)

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PSYC 1001
John Weekes

Psychology Lecture 1 Psychology the science that studies behaviour and the psychological and cognitive processes that underlie it and its the profession that applies that accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems What is psychology 1 Behaviour 2 Affect 3 Cognition consciousness Major SchoolsPsychoanalyticBehaviouralCognitiveHumanistic Areas of PracticeClinicalCounsellingExperimentalResearchAppliedSchoolDevelopmentalIndustrialOrganizational including PersonnelNeuro SportsMilitaryHuman FactorsForensicCriminal Justice Psychology vs Psychiatrists PsychiatristUndergraduate training in science or social science BABScMedical School MD or MBSpecialization in PsychiatryClinical InternshipResidencyPrescription Privileges psychoactive PsychologistUndergraduate training in psychology BABScGraduate level training in Psychology Masters andor PhDClinical InternshipCannot prescribe medication Theories Structuralismbased on the idea that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related depends on the method of introspectionsthe careful systematic self observations of ones own conscious experience Functionalismbased on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or pusposes of consciousness rather than its structure Structural Functionalismfocused on how people adapt their behaviours to the demands of society Behaviourismbased on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable psychology Sigmund Freud unconsciouscontains thought memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awarenessTreatmentpsychoanalytic theory Psychoanalytical theoryattempts to explain personality motivation and mental disorders by focusing on the unconscious determents of behaviour Radical Behaviourismorganisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes they tend not to repeat behaviours that lead to negative outcomes Humanismemphasizes the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth Evolutionary psychologyexamines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations Ex Men as hunters Positive psychologyuses theories and research to better understand the positive adaptive fulfilling aspects of human existence 3 areas of interest positive emotion personal strengthsvirtues positive communications Lecture 2Experimental Psychology Scientific Approach to PsychologyPurposes and goalsMeasure measurement techniques for behaviourDescribePredict hypothesisExplainwhy people do what they doUnderstand Key Notions different influencesObjectivity data are what they areError other factors includedBias influence your resultsTheory theoretical understandingVariables subjectspeople Main Steps 1 Formulate a testable hypothesis 2 Develop research methodology and design 3 Data collection 4 Data analysisstatistical analysis 5 Interpretation of the data results explained 6 Report findings published etc TheoryHypothesisesTestTheory Major Approaches Quantative numbers statistics etc Qualitative full explanations Sources of BiasDesign biases and confoundsExperimenter bias and confoundDoubleblind designs eg drug researchPlacebooccurs when participants expectations lead them to experience a change even though they receive fake treatment StatisticsNormal Distribution Bell Curve Asymptoticnever reaches 0VariationVarianceExplainedUnexplained variation in scores Measures of Central tendenciesMeanaverageMedianmiddle numberModemost common number Types of Variables ContinuousOrdinal measurementInterval measurementLikerttype scalesUnderlying assumption of normal distribution parametric statistics Categorical Dichotomous Binary YesNoIndependent categories
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