PSYC 1001 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ghrelin, Leptin, Insulin

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12 Feb 2016
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Chapter9
● Psychologicaltestsarestandardizedmeasuresofbehaviourusuallymentalabilitiesor
aspectsofpersonality.Testscoresareinterpretedbyconsultingtestnormstofindout
whatrepresentsahighorlowscore
● Standardizationishowweevaluatewhetheratestisgoodornot.Itreferstotheuniform
proceduresusedintheadministrationandscoringofatest.Testscoresarescoredby
consultingtestnormstofindoutwhatrepresentsahighorlowscore.
AptitudeTest:assessspecifictypesofmentalabilities
AchievementTest:Gaugeaperson’smasteryandknowledgeofvarioussubjects
● Asmeasuringdevices,psychologicaltestsshouldproduceconsistentresults,aquality
calledreliability.
Testretestreliabilityisestimatedbycomparingsubjectsscoresontwo
administrationsofatest.Reliabilityestimatesshouldyieldfairlyhighpositive
correlations.
Standardization:referstotheuniformproceduresusedintheadministrationandscoringofa
test
TestNorms:Thetellyouwhereapersonstandsinrelationtootherscoresofthattest
PercentileScore:Tellsyouthepercentageofpeoplewhoscoredthesameasyouorloweron
thesametest
Reliability:Consistencyofoftestresults
Validity:Abilityofatesttomeasurewhatitissupposedtomeasure
● Contentvalidityisveryimportantinclassroomtests
● Criterionvalidityiscriticalwhentestsareusedtomeasureperformance
● Constructvalidityisimportantwhenatestisdesignedtomeasureahypothetical
construct
CorrelationCoefficient:Anumericalindexoftherelationshipbetweentwovariables
DevelopmentofTesting
Galton
● MadefirsteffortstocreateintelligencetestsweremadebySirFrancisGalton,who
wantedtoshowthatintelligenceisinherited
● CorrelationandPercentiles
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Binet
● Modernintelligencetestingbeganwiththeworkofthisguy,publishedfirstuseful
intelligencetest
● Scalemeasuredachild’smentalage
Terman
● RevisedoriginalBinetscale
● ProducedStanfordBinet
● Introducedtheintelligencequotient
○ Becamestandardofcomparisonforotherintelligencetests
Wechsler
● DevisedanimprovedmeasureofintelligenceforadultsandaseriesofIQteststhat
reducedemphasisonverbalability
● Introducedanewscoringsystembasedonthenormaldistribution
Spearman
● Allcognitivetestsshareacore,called“g”(generalmentalability)
● Researchersarestillinterestedingbutsomeiqtestsdivideginto1015abilities
● Inventedfactoranalysis
Thurstone
● Believedintelligenceismadeupofmany(7)independentabilities
IQ:Intelligencequotient;achild'smentalagedividedbychronologicalage,multipliedby100
MentalAge:Indicatesthattheydisplayedmentalabilityofatypicalpersonofthatage
ChronologicalAge:Theamountofyearstheyhavebeenalive
StructureofIntelligence
FactorAnalysis:Correlationsamongdifferentvariablesareanalyzedtoidentifycloselyrelated
clustersofvariables
● Ifvariableshaveacorrelationitisassumedthatonesinglefactorisinfluencing
them,thisattempttoidentifythehiddenfactor
Incontrasttog,Thurstonebelievedintelligencewasmadeupof7independentabilities
FluidIntelligence:Reasoningability,memorycapacity,speedofinformationprocessing
Crystallizedintelligence:involvesabilitytoapplyknowledgeandskilltoproblem
solving
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IQscores
● Scoresonintelligencetestsoncerepresentedaratioofmentalageto
chronologicalage
NormalDistribution:Symmetricbellshapedcurve;representsthepatterninwhich
characteristicsaredispersedinthepopulation
● ModernIQscoresindicateexactlywhereyoufallinthenormaldistributionof
intelligence
● Yestheyarereliable,reliabilitycorrelationusuallyis0.90
● Yestheyarevalid,thoughtheytestonlyacademicintelligence
● TheresultsofIQtestsstabilizearound79yrs
● Scoresareassociatedwithincomebutthecorrelationsaresmall
● IQtestsarenotgenerallyusedinnonwesterncultures
○ Cultureshavedifferentconceptionsofintelligence
IntellectualDisability
● Referstoabnormalmentalabilityanddeficienciesinadaptiveskills,originating
beforetheageof18
● Therearefourlevelsofintellectualdisability
○ Mild,moderate,severe,andprofound
● Over1000conditionsthatcauseintellectualdisability
Savants
● Individualswhoshowextraordinaryabilityinoneormoreareas(memory,
numbers)whilebeingshitatintelligencetestsandeverydaytasks
○ ThinkRainMan
Giftedness
● ChildrenwhoobtainIQscoresabove130maybeviewedasgifted
● Giftedchildrenusuallybecomeverysuccessful
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