Final Exam Review
1. Stage 2 of sleep lasts how long?
a. 1 – 7 minutes
b. 10 – 25 minutes
c. This is REM sleep
d. 30 minutes
2. The name of someone who played a big part in learning, specifically in regards to operant
conditioning. (Hint: He has his own box)
3. Which reinforcement schedule shows evidence of the “scalloping” effect”?
4. Which of the following is not one of the three types of Classical Conditioning?
a. Simultaneous conditioning
b. Long period conditioning
c. Short delayed conditioning
d. Trace conditioning
5. While you are writing your exam you find that thinking back to one of the personal examples
you developed during the lab when we were learning about schedules of reinforcement helps
you to remember the information. What is this phenomenon of memory called?
a. Deep processing
b. Visual imagery
6. Hypnic jerks are most likely to occur during which stage of sleep?
a. Stage 1
b. Stage 2
c. Stage 3
d. REM Sleep
7. According to Craik and Lockhart (1972), our encoding follows 3 distinct levels. Listed in order
from shallow to deep:
a. Phonemic, Structural, Semantic
b. Semantic, Phonemic, Structural c. Structural, Phonemic, Semantic
d. Sensory, Short-term, Long-term
8. Vivid, detailed memories of very important moments are known as what?
a. Photographic memory
b. Flashbulb memory
c. Episodic buffer
d. Sensory memory
9. Tim Horton’s roll up the rim is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?
10. REM sleep is when people:
a. Quickly awaken in their sleep
b. Have rapid eye movements in the 5 stage of sleep
c. Have chronic problems in getting adequate sleep
d. Have partial sleep deprivation
11. Memory is broken into 2 parts. What type of information is held in declarative memory?
a. Implicit memories
b. Factual information
c. Explicit memories
d. Both b and c
12. What is sleep apnea?
a. The inability to fall asleep; chronic problem of getting enough sleep
b. Anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awaking
c. Frequent, reflexive gasping for air that disrupts sleep
d. Asudden period of sleep during an awake period
13. How is knowledge represented, organized, and stored in memory?
a. Connectionist Networks and Parallel Distributed Processing Models
b. Semantic Networks
c. Long Term memory
d. All of the above
14. One method that can be used to help increase the recall of information is by using
_________________________ devices, such as making up a funny saying about the to-be-
remembered information. 15. As a process, __________________ refers to the dynamic mechanisms associated with the
retention and retrieval of information about our experiences.
16. Atask that involves selecting a correct or appropriate item from a group of items would involve
17. Information that you are not consciously aware of but that may help your memory is called
a. Short-term memory
b. Implicit memory
c. Explicit memory
d. Expressive memory
18. The memory operation that you use when trying to “file away” information is called
19. The transformation of physical, sensory input into a kind of representation that can be placed
into memory is called
20. People can remember things for an indefinite amount of time. Psychologists refer to such
memory as ____________________ memory.
21. To access information that we have in memory, we must engage in
22. The size of short-term memory is approximately ___________ items.
23. Information can be transferred to the long-term store by
a. Rehearsal of information
b. Deliberately attending to information to understand it
c. Making connections between new and old information
d. All of the above 24. Amemory of an event so emotionally powerful that the person remembers the event as vividly
as if it were preserved on film is called a _______________________ memory.
25. When you take an essay exam, what type of memory will you use?
a. Recognition memory
b. Recall memory
c. Proactive memory
d. Sensory memory
26. When you come to campus you typically park your car in one specific spot. If you have trouble
remembering where you parked your car today (because your regular spot was not available)
and can only think of where you parked on previous occasions, this would constitute
a. Proactive interference
b. Negative transfer
c. Retroactive interference
d. Semantic forgetting
27. The daily pattern of sleep and waking is referred to as the __________________ rhythm.
28. Stage 1 of sleep, a transition from