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6 Deception.docx

13 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2400
Professor
Jenelle Power

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Description
Deception Unabomber (Ted Kaczynsk) - Child prodigy - PhD in math, professor at age 25 - Resigned 2 years later and became a recluse - Sent 16 bombs , killed 3 people and injured 23 - Brother and sister-in-law recognized the style of writing and beliefs from the manifesto and tipped off the FBI - University and airline bomber - He put out his own manifesto Alternatives to Polygraph 1. Micro-expressions 2. Thermal imaging 3. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) 4. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Detecting Deception - Dr. Cal Lightman is the world's leading deception expert. If you lie to Lightman, he'll see it in your face and your posture, or hear it in your voice. If you shrug your shoulder, rotate your hand, or even just slightly raise your lower lip, Lightman will spot the lie. - LIE TO ME!!! - Based on Paul Ekman Paul Ekman - Microexpression = brief, involuntary facial expression shown when one is trying to conceal or repress an emotion - Nursing students experiment • Masking their expressions when seeing gross things - Micro seconds that expressions are shown for Porter & ten Brinke (2008) - At Dalhousie University - Watched different types of videos • Try to look opposite to your actual reaction - Participants viewed disgusting, sad, frightening, happy, and neutral images • Responding to each with a genuine or deceptive (simulated, neutralized, or masked) expression - Masked emotions were associated with more inconsistent expressions and an elevated blink rate - Negative emotions were more difficult to falsify than happiness - Better at neutralizing emotions than faking other emotion - Untrained observers performed only slightly above chance at detecting deception - Inconsistent emotional leakage occurred in 100% of participants at least once and lasted longer than the current definition of a microexpression (1/25–1/5 of a second) Thermal Imaging - Detects facial warming due to blood flow - Increase in face temperature when lying - No sensors on person needed - Measuring temperature on your face - Liars have hotter temperature around eyes and cheeks - Pretty non-intrusive method Event-Related Brain Potentials (ERP) - Place electrodes on scalp and note changes to electrical patterns in response to stimulus - Promising form = P300 used to detect guilty knowledge IDEALIZED EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIAL (ERP) DURINGALIE DETECTION TEST Brain Fingerprinting - More advanced version of P300 technology - Controversial – he says his research is really good, others are fairly skeptical - “Farwell Brain Fingerprinting is a revolutionary new technology for solving crimes, with a record of 100% accuracy. The technology is fully developed and available for application in the field.” - State v. Harrington (2003) • Farwell claims BF was the most important evidence • “Because the scientific testing evidence [i.e., BF] is not necessary to a resolution of this appeal, we give it no further consideration.” Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) - Measures differences in brain activity when people are being honest versus deceptive • Different parts of the brain are activated when person is deceptive versus when they are telling the truth - Tells the difference between rehearsed and spontaneous lies Peterson during an interview before his wife’s body was found: - "God, the first word that comes to mind is, you know, glorious…She was amazing… umm, she is amazing." - Was talking about his wife in the past tense • Even though she had just disappeared, nothing was said as to whether she was dead or not Susan Smith - 23- years old - Told police there was a car-jacking - Lots of press conferences/media coverage - Confesses on the 9 dayh - Murdered her two sons (3 yrs and 14 months) Penny Boudreau - In Nova Scotia - Reported 12-year-old daughter missing - Pleading and crying for her return on TV - Actually strangled her and left her body outside the town - Found after 2 weeks - Got her to confess by putting a confederate in her prison cell because the police really had no other evidence Detecting High Stake Lies (Vrij & Mann, 2001) - 52 police officers - 5 relatives in press conferences - All guilty of killing relatives - Accuracy rates • Ranged from 0% to 80% • Average = 50% - Took videos of relatives - Police rated whether they were guilty or not Are some people better at detecting deception? - Research suggests only slightly better than chance - Meta-analysis- Abunch of studies on one topic, combined into one finding • “Professional lie catchers” = 55.5% • Students = 54.2% - Accuracy of professional lie catchers vary: • Have a truthfulness bias (believe more things are true than false) • Tend to rely on wrong cues - Can be improved through training - Students are practically the same as professionals at detecting deception - Truth bias • Assume more things are true than false - Can get better at detecting if you’re trained on what to look for Best cues to deception - Vocal cues • Increase in voice pitch* • Use of speech fillers = “um”, “ah” • Slower rate of speech - Nonvocal cues • Fewer hand, foot, and leg movements - Verbal cues • Less detail • Less compelling • Less cooperative - Slower rate of speech – liars need more time to think up their story Muchausen Syndrome - Intentionally produces physical complaint - Constantly seeks physician consultations, hospitalizations, and surgery for non-existent disease - Motivated by need for attention - Muchausen Syndrome by Proxy • Harm their children to get attention  Usually biological mother to biological child - Feign illness - Falsify lab results - Exaggerate a medical problem - Aggravate an existing ailment - Induce actual illness - Delay seeking treatment - Fictitious disorder • Makes up illness - Internal desire for attention Wendy Scott - “By her own count, she became a patient at more than 600 hospitals, sometimes being released from one in the morning and getting herself admitted to another by nightfall. Her portrayals of agonizing stomach problems were so convincing that many doctors resorted to surgery to help her, and she underwent 42 operations, nearly all of them unnecessary. Her abdomen is criss-crossed with scars…” - C
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