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PSYC2500 Complete Study Guide

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PSYC 2500
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PSYC2500Final Exam NotesChapter 8Intelligence Gardners Theory of Multiple IntelligencesProposed 9 different forms of intelligence1Linguistic knowing the meaning of words and using them to understand and convey ideas to others2LogicalMathematical understanding relationships between objects actions and ideas Understanding logical mathematical operations that can be performed on them 3Spatial perceiving objects accuratelyimagining an object before and after it has been transformed4Musical comprending and producing sounds varying in pitch tone rhythm and emotional tone5BodilyKinesthetic using ones body in different ways crafts people athletes6Interpersonal understanding others emotions intentions motivations7Intrapersonal understanding own emotions intentions strengths weaknesses8NaturalisticRecognizing and distinguishing among members of a group and describing relations between such groups9ExistentialConsidering ultimate issues like the meaning of lifeEach of these was supposed to be regulated in a certain area of the brainGardner believed that schools should foster each of these intelligences not just linguistic and mathematical Teachers should be aware of each childs own profile and teach thembased on their own strengths Sternbergs Theory of Successful Intelligence Triarchic TheorySuccessful intelligence involves using ones abilities skillfully to achieve what you want in life in other words capitalizing on ones strengths correcting or compensating for their weaknesses and adapting to shaping and selecting their environmentsThree different kinds of abilities involved1Analytic Ability The ability to analyze different problems and generate solutions2Creative Ability Dealing adaptively with novel situations and problems3Practical Ability Knowing what solution or plan will actually workCarrolls Hierarchical Theory Composed of 3 levels1general intelligence 2eight broad categories of general intelligence 3skillsGeneral Intelligence8 specific components of intelligenceThe skills pertaining to each of these components of intelligence Effectively a compromise between general and specific theories of intelligenceFluid Intelligence Ability to perceive relationships among stimuli sequential reasoning quantitative reasoningCrystallized Intelligence Culturally accumulated knowledge and skills printed language language comprehension vocabularyCritics of Carrolls theory claim that we need to look beyond the psychometric approach to understanding intelligence and pay attention the theories stating there are multiple kinds of intelligencesDefining and understanding Mental AgeMental age is a term coined by Binet in the early 1900sReferred to the level of difficulty of problems that a child could solveIt was used to distinguish bright from dull childrenCalculated with the formula IQMental ageCurrent age X100Does NOT have to equal a childs actual ageWho measures intelligencePsychometriciansPsychologists who specialize in measuring psychological characteristics such as intelligence and personality They analyze patterns in perfomance across tests to answer qs about academic or psycfunctioning How do we measure intelligenceThe best way is Dynamic TestingIt is an approach to intelligence testing that measures a childs learning potential not what their acquired knowledgeA child learns something new in the presence of the examiner and with the aid of said examinerA second way is Statis Testing testing the current level of skillsReliability vs ValidityReliabilityThe consistency of test scores from one testing time to anotherIn the short term IQ tests have high reliability however this fades over timeInfant tests do not reliably predict adult IQ but scores obtained in childhood doVs
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