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PSYC2600 Full Notes for the Entire Year

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Carleton University
PSYC 2600

PSYC2600PSYC2600APERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY MIDTERM 1Grand theories1Approach of making sense of personality2Proposing one universalbig theory to account for all people at the human nature level3Very few in contemporary times4Ex Freuds psychoanalytic theorypsychosexual stages of development where all people go through the same stages idegosuper egoContemporary theories5Focuses on aspects of personality in the group and individual differences level6Specialized research7Six domains of knowledge dispositional biological intrapsychic cognitiveexperiential social and cultural and adjustment Every human being is by Gleick8Like all others human nature level of analysis traits that are typicaloSomething all humans experience ex language skills9Like some others individual and group differences level of analysisoIndividuals within groups similarities and their differences to other groups ex liberals vs conservatives10Like no other individual uniqueness level of analysisoIndividual is not like another individual even identical twins Personality set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence hisher interactions with andadaptations to the intrapsychic physical and social environments11Traits dispositional tendencies ex neuroticism12Mechanisms information processing input decision rules outputs13Organizedimplies the use of a theory to organize research findings to tell a coherent story can be used to make predictions about human behaviour and provides a guide forresearchers14Relatively enduring personality grows and shapes itself through time and space Five Factor Theory by Costa and McCrae15Personality system as universal of human nature but individuals will vary in the level of particular traits16Core components squaresoBasic tendencies personality traitsdispositionsoCharacteristic adaptations way which we typically interact with our environmentoSelfconcept part of the characteristics adaptations17Peripheral components circlesoBiological bases genetics matteroExternal influences factors that shape personalityoObjective biography account for personal life history that shapes personality18System is universal19Variations of traits exist20Theory cannot predict individual behaviourTheorydrawing of 6 componentsModelBig Five ie OCEAN found in Basic Tendencies Six domains of knowledge1 Dispositional how we differ2 Biological genetics psychophysiology evolution3 Intrapsychic mental mechanisms4 Cognitiveexperiential cognition subjectivity5 Social cultural how personality affects and is affected by contexts6 Adjustment how we adapt cope and adjust to life Scientific standards for evaluating theories pg 2021Comprehensiveness22Heuristic value23Testability24Parsimony simpler is better25Compatibilityintegration across domainsCorrelationsNegative correlation as one increases the other decreasesPositive correlation as one increasesdecreases so does the other TheoryHypotheses1Research questions are translated into testable hypotheses2Theory set of statements designed to explain how the world works3Hypothesis statement of what you think should happen Experience Sampling1 Sdata selfreport dataEx Likerttype scale strongly agree to strongly disagree between 17 Research1 Case Studies4Focus is on one individual 2 Correlational Studies5Cannot infer causation6Can only state that there is a relationship between the variables7May be a third unknown variable8Positive correlation 01 to 1009Negative correlation 01 to 100 3 Experimental Research10Can infer causal relationship between the variables11Must manipulate variables12May be a third unknown variable Designing an Experiment13Independent variable IV manipulated14Dependent variable DV variable that is measureddependent upon the independent variable15Operational definition defining the variables and defining how theyre going to be measured16Experimental group group of participants who are exposed to manipulation17Control group comparison group that is not manipulated18Random assignment everyone has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups in the study19Matching ensures each group contains equivalent participantsfor every participant in one group a similar participant will be put into each of the other groups20Confounding of variables basically a third variable that creates a systematic bias due to its potential effect on the studyother variables that are different between the various experimental conditions21Counterbalancing varying the order evenlycontrols for the confounding variables creation of systematic biasuse multiple questionnaires instead of just one to average out the results and eliminate bias Generalization22Population larger group of people about whom you are making inferences23Sample group of participants in study24Generalization applicability of sample groups results to the general population
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