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PSYC2600C_Personality Psychology_John Zalenski_Fall 2010( Full sets of class notes, good luck on exams)

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Carleton University
PSYC 2600
John Zalenski

Personality PsychologyLectureIntro PersonalityPersonality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with and adaptations to the intrapsychic physical and social environmentsLarsenBussExplanation of def 1 Traitdescribes characteristics that differ from one person to another mary is outgoing 2 Psychological mechanismsprocceses of personality extraverted person might try to look for opportunites to be with other people o 3 things1 Inputs 2 Decision rules 3 Outputs 3 Within the individualpersonality is something you carry with you over time from one situation to another stable and consistent 4 Organized and relatively enduringorganizemechanisms and traits are linked coherentlyenduring consistent over situations 5 That influencepersonalities i 6 nfluence how we think act feel 7 Our interactions withpersonenvironment interactionsperceptions selections and evocations Later in notes 8 Adaptions toidea that a central feature of personality concerns adaptive functioning accomplishing goals dealing with challenges 9 Environmentsphysical environments hunger fear social environmentsgood job friends intrpsychic in the mind 10 Personality analysis like all others some others no others 3 levelsIn some ways every human being is o like all othershuman nature levelEveryone speaks a language o like some others level of individualgroup differencesPartier vs homebody o like no others individual unique level Grand Theories vs Domains of KnowledgeDispositional Domainindividual differences and how we measure themBiological Domain3 types 1 Evolutionary animal personalities 2 Genetics heritability twin studies 3 Physiologicalnervous system morningnight person pain tolerance arousal etcIntrapsychic Domainhow things work together psychodynamic o Conflicting internally comples o unconsciousCognitiveExperiential Domain subjective experience emotions o Conscious thoughts feelings beliefs and desires about self and others o Self conceptSocial and Cultural Domainsocial interactions inside vs outsideAdjustment Domain how people adjust to environmentscope adapt adjust o How long you will live vs personality o Can lead to personality disorders Goals of Personality PsychologyDescriptionPredictionExplanation Ideographic 0 look at individuals in depth Nonathleticideas applied to everyone Standars for evaluating personality theories 1 Comprehensionsdoes this theory do a good job and explain all the facts and observations in the domain 2 Heuristic valuedoes this theory explain something that hasnt been studied before 3 Testabilitydoes this theory have enough evidence for predictability 4 Parsimonydoes this theory have to many assumptions 5 Compatibilityintegration across domains and levels Lecture 1 Research and Assessment Methods S O T L o Dont give feedbackIt can make others feel bad about their personalities Selfreport data Sdataeg Questionnaire Interview ESM DRMo ESM experiencewhen you get in a certain situation tell me about it if you and spouse get in a fight text me what your feelingNaturalist in the now what are you feeling right now o DRM daily routinefind and define episodes of your previous day including all situations in which you encounteredMemory biasesMore honesty Eg Do you like spending time with your kids YesDid you like spending time with your kids yesterday NoStructured versus Unstructured o Structuredpredetermined set of answers for participants rate yourself o Unstructuredtell me about yourself Who am I 20 statementsRequire willingness and abilityResponse setso acquiescence extreme social desirabilityacquienscencealways saying yes extremescale of 17only chooses 1 or 7social desirabilitymake yourself sound better than you are thats why you add confidentialityCarelessnessfakingo Carelessnessnot always reading questions usually when onlineTherefore add random questionsdo you go up and down stairs on your hands YesGARBAGE o Fakinganswers question untruthfully Therefore get someone to answer survey as if to fake profile and compare these results to the results of othersCons o biases o You may not know why you act the way you doUnconsciouslyPros o You know yourself better than anyone else o Answer private questionsObserverreport data OdataSelecting Observers o Parents friends coworkers someone who doesnt know participants used so the observer is not biased and is only looking for certain things o If using randomsyou can observe multiple personalitiesyou act different around people you know compared to strangersNaturalistic versus Artificial Settings o Naturalisticsend observer to natural setting classroom room etcCant control behaviours and situations o Artificialbring couples to lab and ask them a question about something they dont agree on observing argumentsLose realism of lifeImmediate in the moment versus Retrospective Settings laterPros o More than one person can observe at a timeInterrater reliability VALID Test data TdataTests whether people act differently in identical situations Laboratory Testseg Marshmallow test Mechanical Devicesactivity level Physiological Recordingsheart rate blood flow in brain etc o Psychopaths dont have same shock reactions arent scaredshocked easily Projective Techniquesink blot Freud testPros o Cant fake responsesCons o artificial Life outcome data LdataArchival archives and recordseg Marital Status Police Record Occupation o no biases because they are set recordseg Researchers look back at year book photos smiles and coded if happier in later life due to bigger real smilesadds predictability because of previous testsall important data longitudinalself report data and oberservational data predicts life outcome data Issues in Personality AssessmentLinks among Different Data SourcesReliabilitydegree to which an obtained represents true level of trait being measured testretest alternative form internal o Alternative form eg Questionnaires put in two forms and are highly correlated reliable o Test retestcompleting a test and redoing it to see if results are similar if so then reliable o Interrater reliabilityValidityface predictive convergent discriminant construct o Does my measure measure what it is supposed to
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