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PSYC 2200 - Condendsed Review Notes

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Carleton University
PSYC 2800

BrainBehaviour Review for MidTerm 1 IntroductionHistory Why Study BrainBehaviour Many behavioral disorders can be explained and possibly cured by understanding the brainThe brain is the most complex living organ on Earth and is found in many different groups of animalsHow the brain produces both behavior and human consciousness is a major unanswered scientificquestionWhat is Behaviour Irenus EiblEibesfeldt oBehavior consists of patterns in timeoExamplesMovements vocalizations thinkingCan beoDependent on heredity Relatively Fixed Innate BehaviorsoDependent on learningRelatively Flexible Behaviors Hippocrates Father of modern medical ethics First to describe effects of head injuries 4 humours excess of Black biledepressive Yellow bile mood swings Phlegmsluggish Sanguine bloodoptimistic tendency for mania An explanation of behavior as a function of the nonmaterial mindAristotleMentalismPsycheSynonym for mind an entity once proposed to be the source of human behavior Galen Correctly identified 7 of 12 cranial nervesRenaissance ReBirth DaVinci laid the foundations for anatomical drawingsRene Descartes Dualism Mind and brain are separate I think therefore I am cogito ErgosumLuigi GalvaniDemonstrated that nerves conduct electricity Studied the sciatic nerve in a frogs leg1800s localization of function hypothetically the control of each kind of behaviour by a different specific brain areaFranz Gall Phrenology Mental and moral faculties determined by shape of skullPierre FlourensAdvocate of experimental ablation remove part of brain and observe which behaviours remain Falsely believed we only use 1020 of our brainPaul Broca Observed stroke patient who had lost ability to speak Patient Tan Concluded area important for speech productionBrocas AphasiaWilliam James Modern approach to biological psychology Concepts of consciousness and human experience described as properties of the nervous systemNeurosurgeon procedure to treat intractable epilepsy Stimulated brain with electrical Wilder Penfield probes to observe their responses Mapped out homunculusDonald O Hebb Father of modern behavioural neuroscienceHebb Rule What fires together wires togetherEric KandelNobel Prize 2000 for research in nerve transduction Molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory Sea SlugEvolutionthe BrainMentalism is the view that behaviour is a product of an intangible entity called the mind psyche the brain has little importance Dualism is the idea that the immaterial mind acts through the material brain to produce language and rational behaviour brain alone responsible for lower behaviours that are common to other species Materialism Behavior can be fully explained by the workings of the nervous system without explanatory recourse to an immaterial mind Supported evolutionary theories of Alfred Wallace and Charles Darwin New species evolve 1 Fossil records 2 Structural similarities 3 Programs of selective breeding Natural Selection Variations in traits that increase fitness will increase the probability of that species survival Sexual selection Each sex has anatomical and behavioral features that favor reproductive success eg peacock feathers Common AncestorA forebearer from which two or more lineages or family groups arise Example Humans and apes are thought to share a common ancestor Taxonomy Branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying species Groups organisms with common characteristics Useful for helping us trace the evolution of brain cells and the brainCladogram branch Display groups of related organisms as branches on a tree Branch order represents how the groups are related evolutionarily as well as the traits that distinguish them Read from left to right the most recently evolved organism or trait is located farthest to the right Jerison 1973 Principle of Proper Mass Species exhibiting more complex behaviors will possess relatively larger brains Jerison developed an index of brain size to allow comparisons among different species Used body size to predict brain sizeEncephalization Quotient EQ Measure of brain size obtained from the ratio of actual brain size to the expected brain size for an animal of a particular body size H sapiens have the largest EQ Why the Hominid Brain Enlarged 1the primate lifestyle 2changes in hominid physiology 3Neoteny juvenilization juvenile stages of predecessors become the adult features of descendantsThe foraging behavior of primates is more complex than other animals 1 The Primate LifestyleFinding fruit is more difficult than eating grass or other vegetation on the ground Need good sensory spatial and memory skills Fruit eaters have larger brainsRadiator Hypothesis Falk 1990 The more active the brain is 2 Changes in Hominid Physiologythe more heat it generates Homo species skulls had more widely dispersed blood flow which allowed for increased brain size Increases blood circulationimproved brain coolingenabled size of hominid brains to increase3 Neoteny juvenilization juvenile stages of predecessors become the adult features ofRate of maturation is slowed Allows more brain cells to be produced Adults retain descendantssome infant characteristics Newly evolved species resemble the young of their common ancestors Evolutionary Approach Make brainbehavior comparisons between different species
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