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Midterm

PSYC 3405 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Neocortex, Intellectualization, Amygdala

by OneClass286390 , Fall 2013
13 Pages
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Fall 2013
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3405
Professor
all
Study Guide
Midterm

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The Nature of Emotion
1. What is an emotion?
2. What causes emotion?
3. How many emotions are there?
4. What good are they?
5. What’s the difference between emotion and mood?
What is an emotion?
There are four components to emotion and each emphasises different aspects.
Emotions are a short-lived, feeling-arousal-purposive-expressive phenomenon that helps
us adapt to opportunities and challenges in life.
Biological reaction
Emotion is associated with bodily changes
oIncreases heart beat
oRise in blood pressure
oDilation of the pupils
Observable changes
oBlushing
oSweating
oDistinctive facial expression
oPosture
oSubjective feeling
Four components of emotion
oFeelings
Subjective experience
Phenomenological awareness
Cognition
oBodily arousal
Physiological activation
Bodily preparation for action
Motor responses
oSense of purpose
Goal directed motivational state
Functional aspect
oSocial expressive
Is emotions communicative aspect
Social communication
Facial expression
Vocal expression
Emotion and Motivation
Emotions act as motivation in two ways, by energizing and directing behaviour
Second emotions serve as an ongoing readout system to indicate how well or how poorly
personal adaptation is going
oSex example (positive emotion such as joy will increase sex)
oSex example (negative emotion such as disgust or pain will decrease sex)
Emotions energize, direct behaviour
Emotions reflect motivational state
Signal status of adaption (positive or negative)
Emotions act as motivators for action
What causes an emotion?
Physiological changes
oWhen a person has strong emotions, may bodily changes occur
oBodily arousal and social expressive
Cognitive interpretations of life events
oThe mind also plays an important role in determining how we feel
oThis relies on the mind deciding how we feel
oFirst meaning is established then emotion accordingly
oInvolves a subjective appraisal of the event
oFeelings and sense of purpose
Biological theorists
oIzard (1991)
Infants, animals show emotion
Emotion is automatic because infants show emotion
oEkman (1992)
Rapid onset, brief duration
Emotion can happen automatically/ involuntarily
We act before we are consciously aware of that emotion
oPanksepp (1994)
Difficult to verbalize so a neural origin
Animals also show emotion
Cognitive Theorists
oLazarus
Personal relevance determines emotion
Life experiences create emotion whereas other life experiences do not
oArnold
Appraisal theory
Cognitive appraisal of the meaning of an event (rather than the
event itself) sets the stage for the emotional experience. Can I cope
successfully with this situation?
oWeiner
Attribution theory of emotion
The thinking and personal reflection we engage in following lifes
successes and failures
oEmotional contagion
Biology
oAutomatic, unconscious reactions
oIzard argues that they are 10 emotions but some argue 2, 3, 4, 9 etc.
oAlthough each of them argue that a small number of emotions exist,
oBasic emotions are universal to all human beings (and animals)
oBasic emotions are products of biology and evolution
Cognition
oCognitive appraisal of event
oHuman beings have more then 2-10 emotions
oThere could be a limitless number of emotions
Solution
oAtleast five such emotions exist
Anger, fear, disgust, sadness and enjoyment
Interactive/ Parallel view
oComplementary processes
Interactive View (plutchik)
What’s the good of Emotions?
Coping function
oTo deal with fundamental life tasks
oSo no “bad” emotions
oAll emotions are beneficial because they direct behaviour where it is needed
oEach emotion responds to a unique readiness for responding to particular situation
Social function
oCommunicate feelings
oFacilitate social interaction (influence)
oCreate, maintain, dissolve relationships
Basic Emotion
Innate
oFear/ anger/ disgust/ sadness/ joy/ interest/ surprise
Same for all persons
Unique and universal expression
Distinct bodily arousal
Types of emotion
Intense and mild emotions
Emotion and Mood – what is the difference
Different antecedents
oEmotions and moods arise from different causes
oEmotions emerge from significant life situations whereas moods can be unknown
Different action-specificity
oEmotions can direct behaviour
oMoods directs what the person thinks about
Different time course
oEmotions are short-lived events
oMoods can last a several days
Theories of emotion (Neurotransmitters)

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Description
TheNatureofEmotion1Whatisanemotion2Whatcausesemotion3Howmanyemotionsarethere4Whatgoodarethey5WhatsthedifferencebetweenemotionandmoodWhatisanemotionTherearefourcomponentstoemotionandeachemphasisesdifferentaspectsEmotionsareashortlivedfeelingarousalpurposiveexpressivephenomenonthathelpsusadapttoopportunitiesandchallengesinlifeBiologicalreactionEmotionisassociatedwithbodilychangesoIncreasesheartbeatoRiseinbloodpressureoDilationofthepupilsObservablechangesoBlushingoSweatingoDistinctivefacialexpressionoPostureoSubjectivefeelingFourcomponentsofemotionoFeelingsSubjectiveexperiencePhenomenologicalawarenessCognitionoBodilyarousalPhysiologicalactivationBodilypreparationforactionMotorresponsesoSenseofpurposeGoaldirectedmotivationalstateFunctionalaspectoSocialexpressiveIsemotionscommunicativeaspectSocialcommunicationFacialexpressionVocalexpressionEmotionandMotivationEmotionsactasmotivationintwowaysbyenergizinganddirectingbehaviourSecondemotionsserveasanongoingreadoutsystemtoindicatehowwellorhowpoorlypersonaladaptationisgoingoSexexamplepositiveemotionsuchasjoywillincreasesexoSexexamplenegativeemotionsuchasdisgustorpainwilldecreasesexEmotionsenergizedirectbehaviourEmotionsreflectmotivationalstateSignalstatusofadaptionpositiveornegativeEmotionsactasmotivatorsforactionWhatcausesanemotionPhysiologicalchangesoWhenapersonhasstrongemotionsmaybodilychangesoccuroBodilyarousalandsocialexpressiveCognitiveinterpretationsoflifeeventsoThemindalsoplaysanimportantroleindetermininghowwefeeloThisreliesontheminddecidinghowwefeeloFirstmeaningisestablishedthenemotionaccordinglyoInvolvesasubjectiveappraisaloftheeventoFeelingsandsenseofpurposeBiologicaltheoristsoIzard1991InfantsanimalsshowemotionEmotionisautomaticbecauseinfantsshowemotionoEkman1992RapidonsetbriefdurationEmotioncanhappenautomaticallyinvoluntarilyWeactbeforeweareconsciouslyawareofthatemotionoPanksepp1994DifficulttoverbalizesoaneuraloriginAnimalsalsoshowemotionCognitiveTheoristsoLazarusPersonalrelevancedeterminesemotionLifeexperiencescreateemotionwhereasotherlifeexperiencesdonotoArnoldAppraisaltheoryCognitiveappraisalofthemeaningofaneventratherthantheeventitselfsetsthestagefortheemotionalexperienceCanIcopesuccessfullywiththissituationoWeinerAttributiontheoryofemotionThethinkingandpersonalreflectionweengageinfollowinglifessuccessesandfailuresoEmotionalcontagionBiologyoAutomaticunconsciousreactionsoIzardarguesthattheyare10emotionsbutsomeargue2349etc
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