RELI1710 Midterm Review
Abbasid Empire: competing clan with Umayyad. (7501258 CE) massacred Umayyad in
750, took control. Established Baghdad as capital, a highpoint for Islam. Height of
Muslim culture and learning. Seen as the Golden Age (esp. 750900)
Abu Bakr: Close friend to Muhammad, 1 Caliph (632634 CE) Brings stability and
establishes Islam throughout Arabia.
Abu Talib: Uncle of Muhammad, Raised him.
Abraham: Husband of Sarah (son: Isaac). Procreates with Hagar (son: Ishmael).
Acculturation: Philadelphia Conference 19 Century CE. Serves shellfish, but some Jews
can’t eat it.
AlBaqir: The 5 Imam. Followed by everyone except for the Zaydis
AlGhazali: 11 Century, synthesized orthodox Islamic thought and Sufism.
Ali: Cousin of Muhammad, 4 Caliph. 656661 CE. Battle with Mu’awiyah at Siffin (657
CE) assassinated by a Kharijite. First Imam.
Anglicans: Created by Henry the VIII, King of England. 1543 CE, like Catholicism but
no pope and yes to divorce.
Antiochus Epiphanes IV:
Apostle to the Gentiles:
Archbishop of Canterbury:
Arius: from Alexandria. Believed Jesus was not eternal, but created. Jesus was homoi
ousion = a similar substance to God. Debates with Athanasius
Ashkenazi: Judaism Eastern Europe, own dietary/dressing.
Assyrians: Sack Northern Kingdom in 721 BCE.
Athanasius: from Alexandria. Coeternity and consubstantial between God the Father and
Jesus the Son. Jesus was homoousion: one being of the same substance of God. Debates
with Arius. Augustine: leading theologian (354430) in the early Christian church; bishop of Hippo in
Ba’al and Asherah: Canaanite Gods.
Baal Shem Tov:
Battle of Badr: (624 CE) Muslims outnumbered 3 to 1 by Meccains, Muslims win.
“Angel” being on battlefield with soldiers.
Battle of Karbala: (680) Husayn (Ali’s last living son) vs. Yazid (Mu’awiyah’s son)
Battle of Sifin:
Battle of Uhud: (625 CE) Muslims are badly trouced. Meccains pull back the battle that
they are winning.
Babylonians: Take over Assyrians, sack Judah 587 BCE. Jews disperse.
Bar Kochba Revolt: (132135 CE) squashed by Rome.
Caliph: “deputy” also “successor” to the Prophet Muhammad as leader of Islam.
Calvin: One effect of Luther’s Protest: Our destiny is decided by birth.
Chalcedon: A council in 451 CE, A compromise between Rome and Constantinople.
Jesus was 1 person, but with both human & divine natures in him.
Christotokos: meaning bearer of Christ, otherwise known as Mary.
Circumcision: boys’ initiation ritual that occurs on the eighth day after birth and is called
brit milah in Judaism.
Confessions (book): Conservative Judaism: Stricter, interpretation of the Torah. Argue that if something has
been there from start, you can’t get rid of it. Sits between Reform and Orthodox.
Movement attempting to adapt Judaism to modern life.
Constantine: (4 Century) Changes the fate of Christianity. A Roman Emperor (306337
CE) who wanted to pick a religion that would bond his empire together, and picks
Christianity breaking Christianity out of the Jewish sect. Goes into battle with ChiRho
and wins, which is taken seriously. Converts on his deathbed. First: Legal to be a
Christian, & everyone can be what they want.
Constantinople: A creed saying that Mary is the “mother of Christ”, Christokos= bearer of
Covenant: Mosaic Covenant: God will protect, in return – they will obey God’s
Crusades: attempts by Christians of Western Europe to recapture the Holy Land by force.
637 CE – fall of Jerusalem to Umar, 1010 CE – Church of the Holy Sepulcher burned
down by a Muslim caliph, 1071 CE Turkish Muslims persecute Christians in Jerusalem,
1095 – the first of many crusade. In 1099 CE the Crusaders win back Jerusalem.
Cyrus: King of Persia
Damascus: Umayyad capital.
Dar alHarb: “abode of warfare”, everywhere except the territories of the ummah under
David’s reign as King: ( ruled c. 1006960 BCE) most famous and loved King.
Consolidation of the Kingdom, Brings 12 tribes together. Brings peace and prosperity.
Conquers Jerusalem becomes Jewish, was foreign. Picks a whole new city to make the
Dhikr: remembrance. Spiritual exercises in Sufism focusing the consciousness on God.
Diet of Worms: Diet = meeting. Charges (1521 CE): Excommunication and political
Diaspora Judaism: Feature of the New Judaism. Diaspora: the dispersion of Jews away
from the Jewish homeland, to live as minorities in other lands. Divided Monarchy:
Docetics: teaching by some in the early church that Christ only appeared to be human;
this teaching was eventually rejected by church councils.
Dome of the Rock: on the Temple mount in Jerusalem was built in 691 CE.
Ecumenism: realize that there are other religions that have access to God. Modern
movement to achieve understanding, cooperation and some form of unity between the
various branches of Christianity.
Edict of Milan: (313 CE) Christ is legal.
Effects: stability across the Empire, grows exponentially, Church and the state are
combined into political Christianity (Emperor is now the bishop)
Exodus: C. 1250 BCE (13 Century BCE) Moses closes water, Egyptians drown &
bodies float to shore. No evidence of this happening.
Ezra: Starts collection of scriptures in 430 BCE
Filioque: A clause. Was: “And I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life,
who proceeds from the Father.” To “And I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and giver
of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son.”
First four Shi’a Imams: Ali, Hasan, Hasayn, Ali Zayn
First Temple: Completed 931 BCE, Built while Solomon reigned as King.
Fivers: Also known as Zaydis. Followed Zayad as the 5 Imam instead of alBaqir
Founding of Israel:
Galilee: Mountainous, distant from Jerusalem. Gemarrah:
Golden Age of Islam: 750900, under the Abbasid Empire.
Hagar: wife of Abraham, mother of Ishmael.
Hanifs: Jews and Christians in Arabia
Hasan: Ali’s son, 2 Imam
Hasayn: Ali’s son, 3 Imam, killed in 680 at Karbalah.
Henotheism: Worship of 1 God – supreme, creator and there is only 1 God.
Acknowledges that there are other Gods, that are lesser to their supreme one.
Hellenism: a culture, very popular.
Hijra: the flight from Mecca to Yathrib. Becomes the start date of Islam, New Year on
Nov 4. Establishes the first Muslim community.
Holocaust: Hitler as dictator of Germany. 1933. Limits Jews rights (professions),
persecution increase, public harassment. After Kristallnacht, Jews became Nazi targets.
Solution came to execute Jews. Labor & death camps. 4 million died in concentration
camps. 1.5 Million in mass executions. Total killed: 5, 962, 129. Before the Holocaust: 9,
Homoousion: One being of the same substance as God
Homoiousion: One being of a similar substance as God
Iconoclast: Eastern Orthodox group, do not believe in painting of God or Jesus and try to
Iconodule: Eastern Orthodox Group, believe in paintings of God and Jesus. Win the
debate versus the Iconoclasts.
Imam: Prayer Leader, proper successors to the Prophet. In order: 1) Ali, 2) Hasan, 3)
Husayn, 4) AliZayn, 5) Al Baqir 6) Jafar 7) Musa 811 don’t matter 12) Mehdi Immaculate Conception: (1854) A theological development. “Mary was sinless when
bearing Jesus”, does not refer to the verge of birth, it refers to how Mary was born
Interior Castle (book):
Isaac: Son of Abraham and Sarah, One of the Three Patriarchs, Father of Jacob/Israel.
Ishmael: son of Abraham and Hagar.
Ismaili Shia: A sect that traces Imamate through Isma’ils sons, also called “Seveners”.
Jacob/ Israel: Son of Isaac, One of the three Patriarchs,
Jahiliyya: Time of the Ignorance.
Jesus: A Jewish Messiah. Son of Virgin Mary. Born 4 BCE. Seemed to like trouble.
Crucified by the Romans. Resurrects.
Jewish War: (6673 CE) Rome destroys the Second Temple in 70 CE,
Kabah: ISLAM: Built by Abraham, destroyed many times and rebuilt. Allah is worshiped
here. Focal point of prayer and pilgrimage.
Kabbalah: “tradition”, especially the medieval mystical Jewish tradition.
Khadija: dies 619 CE, The first wife of the Prophet Muhammad
Kharijites: Assassinate Ali aka the 4 Caliph.
King James: Kristallnacht: 1938, The Night of the Broken Glass. 100’s of Jews killed & injured.
Marcion: Demuirges (evil) were behind creation, Judaism and the Hebrew bible. He
rejected Gospel of Matthew from his canon.
Marranos: Spanish Jews who were outwardly Christianized but many of whom secretly
continued Jewish traditions.
Martin Luther King Jr.: (14831546)
Masada: mountain fortress near Dead Sea where Jewish Zealots made a last stand against
Mecca: The capital of Arabia. A religious center (the Kabah is here). Political center
(Home of the Quraysh Tribe), Economic Center (trade routes and markets)
Messiah: endtime king, de