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Practice Final - Lecture 9 10 11.docx

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Carleton University
Social Work
SOWK 2501
Adje Van De Sande

Practice Midterm | SOWK2501 A | Lecture 9 – 11 Choose the best answer. Good luck! 1. Needs assessments a. are carried out to determine the nature and extent of a social problem b. are also called feasibility studies or front-end analysis c. commonly use surveys as its research method d. all of the above 2. “An aspect to a larger problem identified by a service user and perceived to be amenable to change” is: a. the definition of need b. the way social workers define priorities while working with clients c. the way social workers decide which problems to ignore, due to high workloads d. the definition of want 3. Neo-liberal approach : Structural approach a. political and governmental intervention : community development b. identify and address the underlying causes of needs : focus on welfare services c. providing the absolute minimum, enough to keep people alive : providing enough to ensure people are able to fully participate in society d. cut programs : install programs 4. Which is not a reason for conducting a needs assessment? a. To determine whether the service exists or who uses existing programs b. To determine whether there are enough clients to justify creating a new program c. To determine what barriers prevent clients from accessing existing services d. To create awareness of a historic social problem which is no longer present 5. Which of the following act as barriers which prevent clients from accessing existing services? a. stigma and/or language b. child care or cultural difficulties c. transportation issues d. all of the above 6. The main purpose of a needs assessment is to: a. determine if a new program or intervention is needed b. prove that existing programs or interventions are meeting the need c. prove that existing program or interventions are not meeting the need d. determine if program results justify expenditures 7. Study carried out at one point in time. a. Trend Study b. Longitudinal c. Cross-sectional d. Cohort Survey 8. An example of a longitudinal study where sampling occurs over months or years to determine changes in needs: a. Cohort Survey b. Trend Study c. Trend Survey d. Cross-sectional 9. An example of a longitudinal study whereyou examine specific subgroups as they change over time: a. Cohort Survey b. Cross-sectional c. Cohort Study d. Trend Survey 10. Which of the following statements is false, concerning surveys? a. The most widely used method to conduct needs assessments is perhaps the survey. b. The survey normally involves an empirical, quantitative approach. c. In order to generalize to a larger population of clients, a probability (random) sample must be used. d. none of the above 11. An environmental scan: a. Is the most widely used method to conduct needs assessments b. involves looking at factors that will influence the program goals c. ignores population trends, existing formal and informal supports, transportation, etc. d. none of the above 12. The term “needs assessment” does not: a. traditionally focus on pathologizing and correcting existing problems b. focus on positive characteristics c. orient us to look at negative characteristics d. hinder social workers from applying a structural perspective 13. A strength-based approach uses people’s own resources to help them meet the following goals, except: a. to grow as human beings & improve their quality of life b. to develop their own problem-solving skills c. to deal with their stress and adversity d. to change public opinion on social policy through Public Service Announcements ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14. Which of these statements is false, concerning reasons for conducting program evaluation? a. Program evaluations have become one of the most common forms of research in social work as more funding bodies insist particularly on summative evaluations. b. Program evaluation is a condition for meeting standards set by accrediting body. c. Members of the board of directors may feel demonstrating the effectiveness of a program is important. d. Service users do not ask for evaluations of services. 15. Formative evaluations a. focus on the development of the program as well as its strengths (not weaknesses) b. use essentially an interpretist and qualitative approach c. are normally explanatory and do not look at the experiences of staff and service users d. none of the above 16. Summative evaluations a. use an explanatory design to look at the outcomes of the program b. normally involve a quantitative approach and attempt to answer the question- “Is this program achieving its stated goals in terms of helping service users” c. attempt to establish a causal relationship between the program as the independent variable and the outcome, the dependent variable d. all of the above 17. There are two different types of validity when referring to summative program evaluations: a. internal & external b. domestic & outward c. political & personal d. personal & active 18. __________ is the extent to which the changes in the dependent variable are the result of the introduction of the independent variable and not to some other factor (i.e. does the independent variable cause the dependent variable to change or is there some other cause?) a. Personal validity b. Internal validity c. Outward validity d. External validity 19. External Validity [the extent to which the research results are generalizable to a wider population] depends on: a. Random sampling b. The condition that the comparison groups are equivalent (control groups) c. The condition that nothing happens throughout the course of the evaluation that may jeopardize the equivalency of the two groups d. All of the above 20. Which evaluation is not a type of Summative Design? a. The One-Group Post-Test Only b. The Two Group Pre-Test Post-Test c. The Pre-Test Post-Test Comparison d. The Pre-Test Post-Test Control Group 21. This type measures service user functioning at the start of the intervention and again at the end - telling us if the service users have changed during the intervention, but not verifying whether or not the change was caused by another factor. a. The One-Group Post-Test Only b. The One Group Pre-Test Post-Test c. The Pre-Test Post-Test Comparison d. The Pre-Test Post-Test Control Group 22. This type consists of no comparison group and data point collection after the intervention - it can help to determine how service users are functioning after our interventions; however, it does not prove that the intervention cause the change (without knowledge of prior status). a. The One-Group Post-Test Only b. The One Group Pre-Test Post-Test c. The Pre-Test Post-Test Comparison d. The Pre-Test Post-Test Control Group 23. This design is also called the “classic experimental” design - service users are randomly selected and randomly assigned to either the program (experimental) group or the control group [both groups are tested at two points in time]. a. The One-Group Post-Test Only b. The One Group Pre-Test Post-Test c. The Pre-Test Post-Test Comparison d. The Pre-Test Post-Test Control Group 24. Service users are measured at the start and at the end of intervention; the comparison group (a non-equivalent group of service users) is similar to a control group but they are not randomly assigned – also called a “quasi experimental” design: a. The One-Group Post-Test Only b. The One Group Pre-Test Post-Test c. The Pre-Test Post-Test Comparison d. The Pre-Test Post-Test Control Group 25. The advantage of a Pre-Test Post-Test Control Group design is that: a. it tells us if the intervention caused the change in service users (establishing causality) b. service users know that they are being tested and this affects how they respond on a questionnaire (reactive effect) c. deliberately withholding intervention is not an ethical problem d. we are able to specify results to a narrower population of service users 26. Ethical issues concerning a control group or comparison group specifically include: a. logic models b. the justification of denying service to service users c. informed consent is apparent; participants may refuse any/all parts of the study d. client satisfaction surveys 27. The basic components of the Logic Model include: a. inputs [information which formed the basis for the development of the program] b. goals [general statements of the desired outcomes of the intervention program] c. strategies & short-term / long-term results d. all of the above 28. A logic model is used because it is: a. useful for planners; it helps organizations conceptualize the components of the program b. impossible to evaluate a program when the goals and strategies are not clearly described with measurable outcomes c. useful for front-line social workers; it helps them clarify the components of their intervention plans d. all of the above ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------- 29. Data analysis: a. does not occur in a linear manner b. requires the development of a systematic plan during its early phases c. may be biased without the use of a systematic plan d. all of the above 30. Assumptions underlying qualitative data analysis include: a. the goal of developing an in-depth understanding of the personal realities of participants b. since social behaviour is complex, only a few topics can be investigated using qualitative data analysis c. participants reality should be taken at surface-level, as simplistically as possible d. all of the above 31. Establishing an initial framework for qualitative data analysis requires: a. preparing data in transcript form b. choosing reliable research partners c. developing a preliminary plan for proceeding with your data analysis d. both A & C 32. To consider ethical issues while preparing data transcripts, you should: a. do all the transcribing yourself, verbatim – do not trust other research staff b. be careful to use real names instead of code names, to decrease confusion c. safeguard interviewee’s confidentiality; avoid including identifying information d. none of the above 33. Which of the following statements is false, concerning previewing data in qualitative analysis? a. You should not impose a framework at this stage [the meaning of the information should emerge from the data and not from preconceived notions of your own perspective.] b. Because of the volume of data, it is wise to attempt to read all the transcripts at one sitting. c. Because you are at peak form when you start reading, avoid always starting with the beginning of the transcripts. d. It is often useful to read latter parts of transcripts when your mind is fresh. 34. Using a journal to record the process of the research study is important because: a. it records your reactions to emerging issues in your analysis b. includes notes on the method used in your study, ensuring that the rules guiding the definition of categories are consistently applied c. the audit trail allows an outside person to retrace the steps of your analysis to determine if there have been flaws d. all of the above 35. This is a combination of identifying meaningful units, fitting them into categories, and assigning codes to the categories (using a method called “constant comparisons”): a. First Level Coding b. Retrieving Meaning Units c. Second Level Coding d. Refining & Reorganizing Coding 36. Identifying a meaning unit refers to: a. segments of information that are the building blocks of a classification scheme b. a unit can consist of a single word, a partial or complete sentence, a paragraph, or more c. a piece of transcript that you consider meaningful by itself [an individual preference] d. all of the above 37. This step is more abstract and involves interpreting the meanings of data properties - you need to produce detailed examples to support each interpretation (this allows you to examine categories away from any association with the person who stated the idea). a. First Level Coding b. Retrieving Meaning Units c. Second Level Coding d. Refining & Reorganizing Coding 38. Retrieving meaning units into categories: a. is the first task in second level coding b. unfortunately, pulls meaning units away from its context c. allows you to consider the information in each category in a different way across
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