1.2 billion people do not have adequate access to water, 2.7 billion lack basic sanitation, and 24 000 children under 5 years
old a day die every day from preventable causes.
• International Poverty Line: living on less than $1.25 (U.S.) a day, 1.22 billion people in the global south (21%).
• Global stratification: the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige on a global basis, the gap between the rich
and the poor is growing.
• The gap is growing because of internal issues, such as war, gender inequality, corruption, class/caste inequality,
infrastructures and running them, and unable to support the population.
• Developed nations: countries that are developed, industrialized, the global north, first world, rich countries, “the west.”
Example are Canada, the US, UK, Japan, Australia, France, and Germany.
• Developing nations: countries that are developing into industrialized nations, second world, and middle incomes.
Examples are Mexico, China, Turkey, and Peru.
• Underdevelopment: countries that are underdeveloped, nonindustrial Global south, third world, and poor countries.
Examples are Bangladesh, countries in SubSaharan Africa (e.g. Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo).
• Absolute poverty: living on less than $1.25 (U.S.) a day.
• Relative poverty: when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are unable to maintain an average standard.
• Globalization: refers to a diverse series of trends and forces. It is a vast set of economic, political and social issues. The
tendency for businesses, technologies and political philosophies (e.g. democracy) to spread across the world. Fully or
partially ‘worldwide’ in scale and ramifications. It is the process of interaction and integration among people,
companies, and governments of different nations. International trade drives globalization. People are increasingly aware
of living in a ‘global world,’ there is a new growing awareness of global inequality and oppression.
• Globalization is often used to mean economic processes. There is an increasing reliance of economies on each
other. The opportunities to be able to buy and sell in any country in the world. The opportunities for labour and
capital to locate anywhere in the world. The growth of global markets in finance.
• The Global Economy: transnational corporations pursue cheap labour, lowcost infrastructure, and absence of labour
regulation. Labour in developing countries is legally unprotected and is nonunionized. Canada has transitions from
manufacturing economy to a postindustrial economy (service industry).
• Positives: greater freedom of movement of goods, services, capital, and people. Increase in sharing of cultural
products, travel and migration, trade and commerce, access to more goods and services, and there are cheap goods
for the developed world.
• Negatives: environmental degradation, homogenization of culture, and exploitation of workers. In Canada there is a
loss of domestic jobs (esp. manufacturing) and a weakening of the political power of workers and unions.
• Overconsumption: one of the main contributions to global inequality (and environmental problems) is patterns of
consumption – particularly over – consumption
• Colonialism: when a foreign power maintains political, social, economic and cultural domination over a people for an
extended period of time. The population is oppressed and the resources are exploited.
• NeoColonialism: continuing dependence and foreign domination.
• Debt: many countries have been forced to devalue their currency, cut welfare, and not put money into their economies.
They cannot invest in domestic education, agriculture, social programs, health care, and infrastructure. Developing
countries are in debt to the rich nations.
• Rich countries/companies will loan money and demand that it’s repaid with interest. So instead of poor countries
being able to use their money to build their infrastructure they have to pay back debt.
• Dependency: rich countries have a vested interest in maintaining a dependent status of poor countries, using the
population of poor countries to gather raw materials to be manufactured in the rich countries.
• Theory: deliberate str