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ANTH 150 Midterm: Anthro Midterm 2

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ANTH 150

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1 Past history is so heavy on our shoulder 29.09.2016 Anthropology 150 Midterm 2 Colonization and Colonialism • European Colonialism o Profound impact worldwide o Peoples of every continent SHARE a common past, a colonial past imposed by Europe! o European worldview and worldview of the ‘other’ ( Christians and Pagans o The Superior and ‘Happy children of nature’ ▪ Because people near the equator didn’t wear clothes o The ‘ Other’ became even more visible ▪ Humans or not? • Many choose very quickly that they weren’t humans • Those that said they were humans had to explain why nobody from Europe had heard of them then • How was Europe back then? o Iberia and Holy Wars of Reconquista – costly! ▪ Royalties introduced TAXES o The Edict of Expulsion – Jews out of Iberia ▪ 120,000 to 150,000 Jews + CAPITAL gone! o Spain and Portugal: bankruptcies and debts o Such problems were opportunities for their neighbours ▪ Dutch Merchants ▪ Iberians borrowed money  at high cost o France: political centralization and no foreign debt ▪ Home grown agricultural surpluses ▪ Land- based tributary feudalism emerged • But, France couldn’t compete in commerce abroad! o The capital France back then was very very small o The United Provinces of the Netherlands ▪ Dutch, federation of merchant oligarchies ▪ Dependent on sea-borne commerce ▪ Invested in foreign trade • Adapted to foreign commerce (banks) th o Amsterdam: 16 century, monetary capital of emerging capitalism o One of the first places that created banks o Britain, progressive minded aristocracy ▪ Attuned to commerce opportunities 2 ▪ Sheep raising and wool cloth production • BUT, British Crown was poor and less powerful o Was not in the position to go anywhere else yet ▪ Crown, merchants and landowners – unified! • 17 Century – banks! o Dutch and British: to maximize the possession of wealth in hands of the State to be competitive ▪ The state was in charge of the capital in these two countries to be competitive with other countries o Search for a passage to Orient (India) ▪ Roadblock in eastern Mediterranean o European expansion: Portugal 1415 ▪ From Port of Ceuta to West Africa and Atlantic Islands (Madeira 1420, Benin 1448,…) ▪ Contact with Africa • ‘world a storehouse of commodities’ • changed the attitude of western Europe o New ideology in Europe  ‘world is a market’ ▪ Anything there has, or should have , its price! ▪ Land, humans, labour, ideas, water, sex… ▪ Commodities just need a price tag! ▪ This is the foundation of CAPITALISM • With contact, European powers came face to face with small scale societies o But also with some powerful empires as well: Aztecs and Inkas • Colonization and the New Colonial order! o Colonies linked to European Monarchies o Formerly distant Nations linked by colonialism ▪ Aztecs and Inkas linked with Spain • No evidence that they even knew that the other existed before 1492 ▪ The Tupi and Guarani to Portugal ▪ Haiti and Hurons to France ▪ Iroquois and Cherokee to Britain ▪ Iroquois and Aborigines to Britain • Colonization and the new Colonial Order also implied: political control and Economic control o 1. Political Control ▪ A hierarchy of administrative system that was alien • To supervise locals and extract resources • To control the ‘Others’ against competing European rivals 3 o Portuguese and the Dutch  Tupi Natives (eastern Brazil)  approaching the Tupi’s saying stay with us, fight with us and fight against the enemy o Often members of one group found themselves divided ▪ With the New Colonial Order • Colonizers with authority to decide • Vertical rule from European masters to the conquered Indigenous Peoples (this kind of rule persist still in our times  all the leaders have European ancestry) ▪ New System designed to divide communities (they were never asked it just happened to them) • Iroquois in Canada and USA • Blackfoot in Canada and USA • Mapuches in Chile and Argentina ▪ Political control of colonized continues today (there has been a little change we have a long way to go) o 2. Economic Control ▪ Conquered in the obligation to pay TAXES ▪ Often, taxes in precious minerals • Working for cash at mining centres ▪ Conquered in the obligation to work for their ‘superior’ masters • The outcome of generation and generations of this is what we see today ▪ Conquest achieved for God, Gold & Glory ▪ Search for wealth—exploiting local resources • Minerals and mining centres • Land: ‘ Crown resources, “Crown land’ ▪ Exploitation of the ‘Others’ • Process of dehumanization ▪ The Indigenous peoples of the Americas were conquered • Militarily, Biologically ad Ideologically ▪ 1. Military Conquest • right to control the colonies (land and peoples) • free access to peoples labour • Free access to native women ▪ Early colonizers only men! 2. Biological Conquest • European diseases – smallpox, measles… o French and the Hurons o Portuguese and the Tupi of Brazil o Spanish and the Tainos • Introduction of new animals and plants 4 o Such as pigs  destroyed the landscape o Animals and humans carry diseases o The worst disaster in the history of humanity! • “Indians are inferior” • 04.09.2016 • Central America: The Burden of Time  Watch ▪ 3. Ideological conquest • spread of Christianity! My Religion is better! • Indians to be converted forcefully o Bring the Holy Cross o Worshiping foreign Gods! o Two different worldviews ▪ Christians: One God ▪ Indians: Several Gods • There was always resistance  they protested it, some even died • It didn’t make sense to them to have one God • Eventually the aboriginals added the Christian god  since they had some many gods Europeans couldn’t believe that they would ever truly become Christians  then thought must not be humans ▪ ‘Your Gods cannot cure you”  Europeans • “our God is more powerful” • 1492 • Humanity not ready for encounter o Cultural diversity little understood o Europe extremely intolerant to its own peoples! (Jewish and muslim) ▪ This intolerance became even bigger when they say people in the amazon region wandering around nude • Against peoples physically and culturally different o Increased prejudice • European racial attitudes flourished o Politically and Economically powerful o Attitudes of SUPERIORITY prevailed • But, Europe was ready to: o Accumulate trade goods ▪ Minerals, beaver pelts… o Extract resources – labour and minerals o Philosophy of mercantilism already in place o Exploiting the colonized to the point of dehumanizing them ▪ Becoming very materialistic • Colonialism spread globally • Natives resisted 5 o Resisted to labour, taxes… o But, resistance only increased prejudice and discrimination ▪ Lazy Indians! It’s in their blood! (Not like us hard working people) ▪ It must be in the water, air – environment! • Conquered peoples were: o ‘Treacherous savages, sinister foes…” • Indians were NO match for advanced cultures and Superior peoples o Doom to vanish! o Canadian Indians supposed to vanish within 2 generations ▪ That is why when the treaties were made the Europeans said that they would do anything because they expected the natives to die • Europeans with condescending attitudes o Conquered = “ Charming primitives’ ▪ ‘Happy Children of Nature’ o First Nations seen as ‘domestic animals’ ▪ In need of ‘protection’ • Paternalistic attitudes toward the conquered o Canada and the Indian Act (changed many times over the years to make this document more ‘effective’) o Canada self-granted the right to decide for ‘its Indians’ o Basically saying shut up I will speak for you  you don’t know your rights • Believed  Indians will benefit from conquest o Assimilation; “They will learn from us’ o France: ‘settle to be civilized  told this to hunter gathers who moved all the time’ “Be like US” o Attempts to transform the first nation people into Europeans to civilize them • Efforts to transform the individual  European o Assimilations! o Happened many places o Don’t speak you language--. So many aboriginal language has disappeared • In doing this, colonizers failed to acknowledge that Indians never needed outsiders’ assistance! o They existed fine without the interference of the ‘Superior’ o Colonization, life changed ▪ Not the same since 1492 • Today there is so many First Nation people who are landless and poor in jail • The Noble Savage o Discussing about the Other in a monologue ▪ Who are they? What are they? o BUT NOT INTERESTED IN LISTENING TO THE OTHER 6 ▪ We still continue in this direction today… o Colonizer’s views about the Other prevailed! ▪ Naked innocence = Noble Savage ▪ Europeans have written books and books about first nations but the first nations did not have an opportunity to do that o Conquerors produced an IDEAL image ▪ What an Indian should be ▪ The idealized Indians that NEVER changed ▪ Savages were no match to the civilized ▪ People still believe that aboriginal people behave in the way that Europeans first saw the aboriginal people o The colonized ‘without’ history • Time of Blood purification in Spain o Columbus in the ‘New World; - Hispaniola (To honour the Queen Isabella) o Caribbean Islanders converted o Bartolome de las Casas – the first to fight for human rights • Treated as if they were enemies • Bartolome de las Casas asked why they were treating them this way o ‘But, they are Indians – not Muslims, not Jews’ o ‘Not our Enemies” • Asked  But, Who are they? How did they arrive here? • Pre-contact European beliefs o ‘monstrous races’ o sub-human ‘wild men’ o somebody started to tell stories about these “monsters’ the Europeans believed him • Columbus: ‘Indians similar in Colour to Canary islanders’ o ‘friendly, simple children of nature’ o ‘they could be converted, assimilated’ • Canary Islanders o First enslaved, until –NOT Jews or Muslims (many wondered why they were doing this because they weren’t jewish or Muslim  not enemies o Then, assimilated through intermarriage ▪ When Europeans arrived they forced all the people into slavery ▪ Plantations emerged here ▪ Then somebody pointed it was wrong because they weren’t muslim but then they intermarried ▪ 11.10.2016 • Columbus: other Indians are hostile, ‘cannibals’ o They could be subdued by force or killed • The Choices: o To assimilate or 7 o To exterminate! • *many people who never been to the Americas began to write books • Christian Church and colonial enterprise o “Christians holy duty is to save souls’ • Indians: ‘MAYBE descendants of Lost Tribes of Israel’ o If so, ‘they have nothing to do with Christ’s crucifixion” o ‘Unlike Jews and Muslims Indians never rejected Christ’  There was no proof ▪ more reason for the Catholic church to do everything that they could do to convert the first nations people • Bring the words of Christ! o Christianization and Assimilation! • In Hispaniola (Present day Dominican Republican): encomiendas established o Spaniards became land owners o Land came with the Indians o Everything found on the land was theirs and could do anything they want with it. Including the Indians ▪ The Native became their Indians – labour! • THIS CONTINUED FOR THE NEXT 300ISH YEARS! o Brutal exploitation of the Indians  included children for generations • 1511, Jose de Acosta and Antonio de Montesinos: o how to justify the widespread suffering and abuse of Indians? o One of first to say whatever we are doing in the Americas is WRONG! How can we justify everything we are doing? • Campaign for the Human Rights of Natives was born o About the survival of Indigenous Peoples • 1550 – 1551: Bartolome de las Casas and Juan G. de Sepulveda (contact with the Spanish crown) o Are the Indians humans? Do Indians have reason? ▪ Sepulveda said no and said it was good if we used them they will learn from us! ▪ Sepulveda: “non-rational, brutish beings’ • But useful to Spaniards • Could become Christians only by FORCE ▪ De Las Casas: “They are rational, capable of civil life; Christians without right to control and exploit” • Natives existed without Europeans fine • Their exploitation is inhumane • The Caribbean Islands: o Encomiendas and diseases  depopulation • From the Caribbean Islands to mainland! o 1519 Cortes in Tenochtitlan (Aztec)  gold and things beyond their wildest dreams in these two places 8 o 1532 Pizarro in Cuzco (Inca) • Long established European beliefs challenged o Religion – Day 6: God creates the land animals and human beings (Genesis 1:27) • But, Progressive European minds: who are we? o Realised that RELIGION did not explain all! • Mesoamerica was just the starting point o North and South waited to be ‘discovered’ ▪ Looking for onther places like Tenochtitlan with all of its treasure • Bernal Diaz (secretary of Cortex) o Tenochtitlan ▪ Most beautiful city – nothing like it in all Europe ▪ Soldiers asked if it was real or was it just a dream ▪ Said we found this beautiful city but when we left it it was destroyed • Shortly after, A NEW SOCIAL ORDER implanted in Americas and beyond (Asian, Africa and the Pacific) o Colonial life! o Every one from these places seen as inferior creatures and were there to be exploited • Spain, Portugal, France, The Dutch and Britain o Behind the Colonial LIFE ▪ Had wars almost everywhere! • As the humans status of Indians’ was discussed behind the Indians o More encomiendas (land divisions) established from Mexico to Chile o Land, Indians and Resources owned by Spaniards and Portuguese ▪ A lot of people from Spain and Portuguese were poor when they came  couldn’t read etc • Christians convinced: o God handed new lands to them in recognition for their victory over Muslims! o It is a divine intent (Manifest destiny) o With rights to dominate non-Christians • Pope Alexander VI legitimized Spanish claims by Papal Bull 1493 o To expand Christianity • Portugal: African west coast and eastern Atlantic o What about us? \ • Portugal and Spain agreed to divide the land to themselves (Pope) o Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 ▪ Official document to take over the land and control the Indians • By 1559, some 800 missionaries in Mexico alone o But, natives resisted Christianity ▪ Church’s mandate 9 • ‘destroy their sacred places’ ▪ Answer: It is impossible! • They worship Rocks, lakes, mountains, rivers, the sun… • Kidnapping the Indians a common practice!  brought them to Europe o Portuguese – took Native peoples from eastern Canada to Portugal ▪ Also from eastern Brazil o French (Jacques Cartier, 1534) – kidnapped a Stadacona chief to France o Other European power did the same globally ▪ Human zoos in Europe  this is how they created the others Africa • Homeland to human species; bipedalism and tool making • Northern Africa and Europe = long established contact • Prior to mid 15 century little contact with sub-Saharan Africa = contact only indirect (Europeans had little or no knowledge about this area) • Direct contact with the region (sub-Saharan Africa) produced positive and negative views o Positive: Bl
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