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[PSYC 223] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 77 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC-223
Professor
Corrigal
Study Guide
Final

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MacEwan
PSYC 223
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Introduction and Chapter 1
-you would like to know whether college students can tell apart strangers voices? (confounding cues
such as vision/ facial recognition or hearing people switch sheets)
-6 month olds? Test difference in voices? familiarize to one voice
Infant testing methods: -issues with infant/child studies: comprehension, communication, attention
span, hypothetical constructs, changing perceptual abilities, struggle with hypothetical
constructs/empathy, motor/coordination, suggestibility (believe in right and wrong/ social
management/impression management, acquiescence, ethics (cannot consent)
-competence vs performance: competence as ability but can exist with poor performance (ie being
overly tired)
-language constraints: struggle with comparatives (ie smaller, longer); they understand quantity in
ters of a ier
-unable/unwilling to do the task, scared of the researcher (even the way they dress ie lab coat)
-child appropriateness of stimuli (too complex vs. too easy-results in inattention); rating scales require
working memory
-attrition: losing subjects of study especially with longitudinal studies (ie moving, not interested)
-exclusion rate: have to be excluded for activity such as parent interference, fussy babies
-selection bias: tend to come from high socioeconomic status (wealthy, intelligent, educated parents)
Infant testing methods
a)Habituation: the familiarity test; get them used to a stimulus to the point of boredom. Often for visual
stimuli. Question of discrimination: can the baby tell two things apart?
Habituation trial: watching for decreases in the amount of time they spend looking at an object
They would be bored once they reach X time decrease (ie 50% of looking time); then compare to a
different face (called dishabituation: able to discriminate between two items)
Limitations: outside distractions, the way you treat each infant, age ranges/limitations
b) Preferential looking or listening: tests for recognition and preferences (ie for recognizable objects)
-Ie novel preference: babies have been shown to prefer patterns over solid colors ( ie checkboard over
orange triangle)
-record of how long baby looks at each image
-familiarity preference: often looks longer at recognizable images (ie look longer at mom than stranger)
-preferential listening: auditory stimuli offered ONE at a time; often a recognition study (how long do
they continue to listen to one speaker without turning away)
-control for tone, volume, phrasing
c)conditioned head turn: different from preferential listening (2 sounds) (ie for telling apart two
stranger voices)
-discrimination test
-condition baby to move their head in response to a change in background noise (one voice becomes
background noise and the other will be the one that conditions)
-voice can be louder to elicit conditioning (followed by rewarding the head turn)
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-must prove learning (ie turning head four times in a row only in response to proper head turning at
change of stimulus)
-hit: baby turns their head when change occurs
-false alarms: when the baby turns their head but there was no change (goal is >hits than false
alarms)
d) Physiological measures: eeg, eye tracking, heart rate, skin conductance
-eeg measures electrical activity on the scalp: can track baby response to event related potentials to
standard sounds versus deviant sounds. Brain will respond to sounds w/o requiring the baby to focus in
advance---brain will respond to sound even if they are looking at something else
-eye tracking: can pick up abnormal scanning eye patterns (ie autistic children spend less time on the
eyes)
Self report statements: used for older children or parent reports
-can also be used verbally (interview), or with rating scales
Systematic observation:
-Either naturalistic (a pre-existing/normal setting) vs structured observation (lab): typically used when
you a’t osere that ehaiour i a atural settig or the eet is rare (ie a eergey, a oflit, the
strange situation for attachment styles)
-behaviour samples (task): to assess motor or cognitive skill- recall competence performance distinction
Longitudinal study: the same children are tested every X number of years (ie Betty in 2009, 2012, 2015)
Pros: behaviour tracking (continuity or predicting future behaviour such as agression)
Cons: high rate of dropout called attrition, expensive, practice effects and fatigue effects (retesting leads
to natural improvement/loss of skill)
-conclusions can be skewed when one group tends to dropout more than the others (ie the control
group drops out)
Cross-sectional: children at different ages are tested in the same year (ie study a group of 6 year olds, 9
years olds and 12 year olds in 2015)
Pros: how do skills improve over time
Cons: difficult to account for individual differences
Longitudinal-sequential (multiple groups of ages exist, but are tested at least twice)
Pros: less attrition, less expensive, quicker, maximizes strength and minimizes weaknesses
Themes in development: active vs passive children (like a spoge s. atiely assume a role in
development-- especially with age and the increase in the development of peers and a school
environment)
nature vs. nurture: in reality an interaction between genetics and environment
domain specific (independent) vs domain general development: do different
aspects (ie motor, cognition) develop independently or together? In addition there are sub domains
(specificity- ie cognitive has memory, language, etc.). Example: domain general- does a babies ability to
walk change their cognition or the way they think?
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