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HIST 203 Final: HIST 203 compiled notes final

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HIST 203
Jarrett Rudy
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HIST 203 Reading notes Genevieve Roberge
P. 4-26
The completion of confederation 1867 1873
*page 5 - Timeline
The Atlantic provinces: Nova Scotia and New Brunswick: Pacifying
the anti-confederates
Howe’s support for Confederation, however reluctant, was the key
breakthrough in Nova Scotia.
By allying himself with Sir John A Macdonald, his acceptance of the
reality of the union and his refusal to engages in useless opposition
were probably among his most important statesmanlike acts
In February 1869 Howe ran as a pro-confederate, and won with a
comfortable majority and headed off to Ottawa
In Ottawa, Howe’s task was to attract the support of Nova
ScotiaMPs to the government, which he did gradually through local
In 1872 the Nova Scotia government started an active railroad
building program, and after the Liberals under Alexander Mackenzie
replaced the Tories in Ottawa in 1873, Nova Scotians increasingly
spoke of a working alliance with the federal government.
Gradually the Nova Scotia government abandoned its overt anti-
confederate stance, and Nova Scotia MPs in Ottawa became allied
with the two major federal parties, although residual resentment
would surface from time to time over the years.
Prince Edward Island The Land Question
PEI an important motive was settlement of the long-lasting land
The delegates agreed unanimously that if the PEI legislature would
send delegate to arrange a plan that could be worked into the
British north American Act, they would support the granting of
whatever amount was necessary to purchase property rights, up to
The Canadian cabinet subsequently discussed this proposal and
decided that the offer could be binding only if it were inserted in the
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BNA act, which the cabinet had no power to do without legislative
PEI proposed a reciprocity treaty with the Americans, in 1868 they
sent a committee. The talk went well, a disapproving dispatch was
send accusing the island of exceeding its authority, which they took
as evidence that the British wanted to force the Island into union
with Canada
Negotiating “Better Terms”
In the end, the American did not pursue the treaty, but the
prospect was enough to galvanize the Canadian House of Commons
into considering the PEI issue.
December of 1969, the Canadian government offered the Island
generous terms (p.7). It also promise that Canada would seek
compensation from the imperial government for the Islands lack of
crown lands, and that if that request was refused, the Dominion
itself would lend the Island 800,000 to help it deal with the land
In 1871 the PEI legislature began on a course of active railway
o The main objection to railway building was that it would lead
to union with Canada
PEI settled down to become what it had known all along it would
be: the smallest, least powerful, and poorest province within the
1864 NFL had in effect invited itself to the Quebec conference, but
the colony of 130,000 people scattered along the seacoast of a
large island had found a decision on union too divisive to pursue.
These terms were debated but then set aside pending ‘an appeal…
to the people at the next General Election”
Ultimately it is impossible to tell whether the election reflected NFL
true feelings about union.
What is clear, is that neither Canada nor the British government
was sufficiently concerned about NFL to seek to undo the conclusion
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reached in 1869; the were content to wait for NFL to come around.
The colony would from time to time how signs of a change of heart,
but never quite managed one until 1949, and then under
extraordinary circumstances.
The creation of Manitoba and The North-West Territories Canada
moves to expand
William McDougall introduced the seven resolutions into Parliament
that were designed to set the stage for expanding the fledgling
nation across to the prairies and out to the Pacific
Canadian parliament had endorsed westward expansion and the
bringing of civilization to the Northwest
What the Canadians had in mind for the land from the HBC
(eventually divided into Manitoba and North West Territories) was a
temporary colonial administration, to be run by a lieutenant-
governor and an appointed council of seven to 15 members
McDougall was appointed the first lieutenant-governor
Naturally, the Canadian government did not bother to inform
anyone in the West of the new arrangements
By early 1869, the Canadians were clearly perceived as a threat to
the land, language, and religion of the local inhabitant, the Metis
The Metis Resistance
Louis Riel emerged to lead the Metis
Riel led a party of neighbors to Nault’s farm, where they stood on
the surveyors chain and told them to stop
This act was Riels first resistance to Canada’s acquisition of the
HBC’s territory
When the Metis objected that McDougall come onto their land, Riel
insisted that his compatriots were ‘simply acting in defence of their
liberty’ and ‘did not anticipate any opposition from their English-
speaking fellow countrymen, and only wished to join and aid in
securing their common rights’
Riel drafted a declaration of rights for the Metis
The Execution of Thomas Scott
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