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Alcohol (week 9).docx

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Health Studies
HLTH 230
Jeffery Lalonde

Alcohol  A class of organic compounds containings hydroxl groups o (OH)  Can rapidly penetrate into cells and destroy cell structures  Killing the cell  Toxic in small amounts  Toxicity can be beneficial to kill microbial cells  Alcohol swabs  Ethanol is less toxic than other alcohols  Alcohol affects every organ o Most evident in the liver  Liver uses fatty acids as fuel and holds excess fatty acids and triglycerides  They can be used for other tissues  With alcohol, fatty acids accumulate while the liver is trying to break down the alcohol  Alcohol metabolism can permantly change the liver cell structure  Can impair its ability to metabolize fats  Fatty liver in heavy drinkers  Ethanol o Ethyl alcohol  What we drink  Particular type of alcohol found in beer, wine, distilled liquor  Most widely used and abused drug in our society  Legal, non prescription drug that produces euphoria  Less toxic than other alcohols  If diluted and taken in small amounts, can be used with low risk  Alcoholic Drinks o Rum  Sugar cane Wine  Grapes o Beer  Wheat o Vodka  Potato o Cider, Brandy  Apples o Ale, porter  Barley o Sake  Rice o Tequila  Agave o Bourbon (bonbon)  Corn  One Standard Drink (13.6g of alchol) (1/2 oz)  5oz wine (142ml)  1.5oz hard liquor (43ml)  12oz beer (341ml)  Distilled Liqour  Stated in proof  80 proof, 40% alcohol  Double alcohol present Production of Alcohol  Produced by fermentation o Grains, cereals, fruits, potatoes, o Carbohydrate rich foods  Fermentation o Yeast consumes carbohydraes and converts them to alcohol and carbon dioxide o Each molecule of fermented glucose has  2 molecules of ethanol  2 molecules of carbon dioxide  2 molecules of water o Sugar, yeast, water, are combined and left at room temperature  1. Yeast cells multiply, use sugar for energy  Produce small amounts of alcohol  2. Oxygen is depleted, leaving sugar, alcohol, and carbon dioxide with no oxygen o Fermentation is completed when sugar is used up, or alcohol content is high enough to inactivate the yeast  Malting o Yeast requires sugar  Maltose o Malting occurs  During malting, grain seeds are allowed to sprout  Produces enzymes that break down starches into simple sugars  Beer, whiskey o Grains Alcohol in the Body  Alcohol requires no digestion o No breakdown before absorption  Aprox 10-30% of alcohol is absorbed directly from an empty stomach and can reach the brain in one minute  Can lead to an immediate eurphoric feeling  Alcohol in the Stomach o Breakdown begins with ADH  Alcohol Dehydrogenase  Women produce less dehydrogenase in the stomach than men  Women get more alcohol from a drink that reaches the intestines faster o Less is broken down  Small Intestine o Rapidly absorbed in the small intestine  Priority customer  It gets absorbed and metabolized before most nutrients  It gets absorbed first because  It cannot be stored  It is potentially toxic  Needs to be broken down as quickly as possible  Liver o Liver can break down some of the alcohol before it moves through the rest of the body  Capillaries of digestive tract merge and carry blood, with alcohol, to the liver o Liver cells and stomach cells can produce ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase)  Allows cells to metabolize alcohol  Alcohol in the blood allows fast transportation and absorption o Liver can process about ½ ounce of ethanol per hour  Dependant on health, drinking experience, size, food intake  The rate of alcohol breakdown depends on the amount of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) available o Too much alcohol for liver,  Alcohol will circulate through the whole body until the liver can catch up  Should not drink more than 1 drink and hour  Alcohol Dehydrogenase o Amount of alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme varies based on genes and recent food intake  Drinking after not eating all day causes you to have increased effects for 2 reasons:  Rapid absorption  Slowed breakdown  Decreased enzymes from protein breakdown because of lack of food o ADH breaks down alcohol by removing hydrogen’s o 2 steps  Alcohol dehydrogenase oxidizes alcohol to acetaldehyde  High concentrations of acetaldehyde in the brain and tissues can cause damaging effects  Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase converts acetaldehyde into acetate  Acetate is then converted to Acetyl – CoA o These reactions produce hydrogen ions  The B Vitamin (Niacin)  Coenzyme  Picks up hydrogen atoms  Diminishes NAD and accumulates NADH  NAD is used to oxidize o Accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced
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