• suggests that since citizens living in nation states are becoming increasingly more affected by
forces occurring outside their nation state, then global matters should be controlled by
• An example of this is the European Union
• Democratic theorists should focus on ensuring that international institutions are both effective
controllers of global development and that they themselves are under control.
• This is an off-shoot of the idea of democratic participation.
• Builds on the participation by arguing that the process of public debate and argument leads to
rational and more legitimate decision-making.
• Allows for toleration of other people's views in divided societies and can therefore lead to
• It is sometimes referred to as the participatory or developmental theory of democracy.
• Emphasizes the active participation of citizens in the making of political decisions.
• Associated with the theories of Rousseau and the 19 century British political scientist John
• This option is unrealistic and undesirable because mass participation is not a characteristic of
modern democratic societies.
• It is undesirable because the masses tend to be unreasonable and are drawn to make irrational
• This form of democracy is also called revisionist or the protectionist theory of democracy.
• It is associated with Joseph Schumpe