PSY 302 Study Guide - Final Guide: Prenatal Development, Teratology, Fetus

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Published on 21 Apr 2020
Ryerson University
PSY 302
1. Which statement BEST summarizes the relationship between nature and nurture and their
effect on child development?
1. A) Nature creates nurture.
2. B) Nature and nurture are in constant interaction.
3. C) Sometimes nature; sometimes nurture.
4. D) First nature, then nurture.
2. When do nature and nurture begin interacting?
1. A) prenatally
2. B) at birth
3. C) in infancy
4. D) after infancy
3. Which assertion is TRUE of prenatal development?
1. A) Prenatal development is essentially completely due to nature, except when
teratogens are involved.
2. B) Prenatal development is purely the unfolding of innate potential.
3. C) There are innumerable interactions between nature and nurture in the womb.
4. D) The interaction of nature and nurture is limited to the control of the effects of
nurture by the nature of the mother.
4. Which statement is NOT an example of nature eliciting nurture?
1. A) Parents of negative, unregulated children may become increasingly punitive
2. B) Fetuses' exposure to their mothers' voices in the womb leads to their learning
prefer their mothers' voices over those of other women.
3. C) Children who are attractive are treated differently by adults and peers than
who are unattractive.
4. D) Babies who enjoy being cuddled are more likely to receive cuddling than are
squirmy babies.
5. The adorable nature of babies in their appearance and their coos and smiles is a
particularly good example of which process?
1. A) nature eliciting nurture
2. B) the importance of timing
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3. C) nature revealing itself over time
4. D) the importance of the active interpretation of experience
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6. Which statement about the effect of timing on the relation between nature and nurture is
1. A) Nature only influences the nurture of human beings once they are born.
2. B) Nurture only influences the nature of human beings once they are born.
3. C) The effects of a particular kind of nurture depend on the nature of the child at
time of the experience.
4. D) A particular kind of nurture will generally exert its effect regardless of the
nature of
the child at the time of the experience.
7. Which statement is NOT an example of the importance of timing on the relation between
nature and nurture?
1. A) Infants who are impulsive are more likely than other infants to exhibit
behavior in later childhood.
2. B) If infants who are born with a defect that inhibits their ability to focus their
eyes on
the same point are not given restorative surgery by the age of 3, they will never
have normal depth perception.
3. C) Infants have the ability to hear differences in phonemes that are not important
their native language, but they lose this ability after 12 months of age.
4. D) Maternal rubella causes visual and auditory damage to the fetus when the
occurs early in pregnancy, but not when it occurs late in pregnancy.
8. Sensitive periods occur in which domains of development?
1. A) physical and cognitive
2. B) physical, cognitive, and intellectual
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3. C) physical, cognitive, intellectual, and social
4. D) physical, cognitive, intellectual, social, and emotional
9. Which aspect of nature does not reveal itself completely at birth?
1. A) attractiveness
2. B) nearsightedness
3. C) brain damage
4. D) intelligence
10. The association between parental involvement in school and academic achievement is:
1. A) consistent across socioeconomic and ethnic groups.
2. B) stronger for low-income families than for affluent families.
3. C) stronger for European American families than for African American families.
4. D) stronger for families of girls than for families of boys.
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11. Infants do NOT contribute to their own development through:
1. A) eliciting reactions from other people.
2. B) being unable to get around the environment on their own.
3. C) interpreting their experiences.
4. D) physically interacting with their environment.
12. Which infant is unable to actively influence his environment?
1. A) Andrew, who is blind
2. B) Bobby, who is paralyzed
3. C) Elias, who is severely cognitively impaired
4. D) Andrew, Bobby, and Elias are all able to actively influence their
13. An example of self-initiated activity in the domain of gendered behavior is:
1. A) gender segregation.
2. B) parents' rewarding of gender-appropriate behavior.
3. C) teachers' practice of calling on boys more than girls.
4. D) cultural expectations for boys and girls.
14. Aggressive children's hostile attributional bias is an example of the influence of:
1. A) early experience.
2. B) nurture on nature.
3. C) individuals' active interpretations of their experiences.
4. D) timing of the interaction between nature and nurture.
15. An example of children's active interpretation of their experiences is:
1. A) their informal theories of living things.
2. B) the loss of the stepping reflex.
3. C) the elicitation of harsh discipline by difficult toddlers.
4. D) attachment formation.
16. Which statement provides an example of the manner in which children contribute to their
own environment by regulating their own behavior?
1. A) Children who are better able to control their negative emotions have more
successful peer relations than do other children.
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