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SOC885 : Notes for midterm.pdf

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SOC 885
Zahra Hojati

Muhammed the Legacy of a Prophet: -Is a documentary film about the life of Islamic prophet Muhammed, based on historical records and on the stories of living American Muslims who call Muhammed the messenger of god. - Documentary tells the story of seventh century prophet who changed world history in 23 years and continues to shape the lives of more than 1.2 people. -this story has passed down from generations to generations -basically a story about a merchant, husband, father, statesman, and warrior whom they considered the final prophet Leila Ahmed: -Egyptian American writer on islam -argued that the relationship between women and islam has become politicized because of the history of colonialism and the nationalist struggles in muslim societies against colonialism (colonialism is basically the control or governing influence of a nation over a dependant country, territory or people) -said that androcentrism and misogyny are problems of western women‟s as well  Androcentrism is thinking men‟s way is the best, masculinity and maleness is the best way  Misogyny is a general hatred for women; there is a generalized hatred for women. -said that why is it other women also have problems that aren‟t automatically assumed to be connected to their culture/religion  Muslim women have been offered the solution to adopt practices from other cultures -colonalism has to do with politics and male power, many times the colonizers agree with the control over women and give the men all the control -colonalism is a policy in which a country rules other nations and develops trade for its own benefits; Canada was a colony of Britain; took overland and developed a fur trade for the benefit of the colonizing country -Ahmed‟s main argument is that we need to look at history in order to understand why women‟s problems are always framed as a matter of modernity vs. tradition, islam vs. the west -Edward Said argues that modern Western thought the West and East as 2 opposite civilizations  They are geo – politically oppsed  West = individualism, democracy, progress  East = socially backward, static  Cultural opposites H, Hoodfar: -says there is no specific recommendations of the form or practice of veiling in the Quran -says that veiling is a lived experience full of multiple meanings -also says muslim women like all other women are social actors, employing, reforming and changing existing social institutions -the static colonial image of oppressed veiled muslim this often contrasts sharply with women‟s lived experience of veiling -hoodfar does not consider the veil to be liberating or oppressive  She gives examples of both sides, she states how mainly the western influence have the view that women are oppressed  Some women say that it liberates them because of the teachings the Quran gives rights to womens  Although the western views are oppressed muslim women found it liberating -compulsory veiling, compulsory unveiling  The west and & east are 2 different cultures, everything western is suppose to be good and liberating, eastern is suppose to be oppressive  Many people from the east started to see each other through the lens of the west -in many colonized societies, early on it was the women fighting for votes however, now in many colonized societies the men are fighting for women‟s rights Under the Sky Movie:th -at the end of the 20 century veils are always about dominance, political, strategic and cultural - these 3 women defy those boundaries, western imperialism see‟s their devotion as backwardness or evidence of terrorism -in France, hajib is banned in schools. In Canada, there are incidents such as in the one in Montreal where 2 students got suspended for wearing the veil -women who grow up in the Middle East have an almost physical aversion to the Hijab  Now it is a different meaning, our minds have been colonized -muslim women aren‟t nun‟s, when we dress modesty it is for many reasons  We still wear lipstick, enjoy sex etx. We are not asexual  The associate or project image of purity is WRONG -when you look at into the desire to unveil, it‟s a question of power at stake, it‟s a desire for sexual power as well as a geopolitical context -idea of rape is democratically distributed in all societies/countries yet only certain states get to be represented as rapists -in the 50‟s with the Algerian war, the veil was still a symbol between the east and the west  After the war finished the reality of women has worsed  Ex: Iraqi women has no food/jobs, those who had children many of them died; didn‟t have food to feed them, no medicine -debate against women is will intense  Ex: in the west if you are not wearing a Hijab you are a belly dancer Jasmine, Zine: -L‟affair du foulard France 1989: 3 school girls were banned because they came to school wearing the hijab -she says idea of race changes over time. In history when irish came to North America they weren‟t considered as a white race. In the U.S, there was a one drop rule till the late 50‟s  Rule claimed that if you had one drop of black blood you were identified as a Black -when talking about races, you are saying that they are different groups of human beings with different races, racialized means it is a process because anyone can be racialized depending on where they live, what class they are  Ex: a white women converts to Islam and wears the nijab; shes racialized -zine says there are new forms of racism, culture rather than talking about biological characteristics; now racism is expressed to some people on the basis of culture Sevda, Clark: -looked at Europe, Turkey, France; places where they banned the hijab -defense of secularism  Ex: turkey banned the hijab, very interesting for Muslims today and those living in other places; constitution is secular. Usually it was ignored because states don‟t go around policing to that extend. However, in the 90‟s, # of university students started wearing the hijab and the government started policing it even more. Compulsory de-veiling: (Hoodfar) -term used in hoodfar‟s article, refers to the forceful removal of the hijab. It was a tactic used by the shah‟s father in Iran; an attempt to modernize Iran. -caused a significant change in the lives of many Muslim women
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