BPK 110 Study Guide - Final Guide: Osteomalacia, Scurvy, Broccoli

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LECTURE 7 VITAMINS
*EXAM, KNOW 2 FUNCTIONS, 2 SOURCES, 1 SYMPTOM DEFICIENCY, 1 SYMPTOM TOXICITY FOR
THE FOLLOW VITAMINS:
- B Vitamins: Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, folate/folic acid, B12, C (all water soluble)
- Vit. A, D, E, K (all fat soluble)
Intro
- Organic
- Promote/regulate body processes
Vitamin Bioavailability
- Extent body can absorb vitamins
o Depends on diet, body condition, foods eaten @ same time, preparation,
sources
- 40-90% vitamin in foods absorbed (SI)
- Minimize vitamins loss:
o Avoid 1) heat, 2) UV light, 3) oxidation
o Refrigerate
o Airtight containers (cut foods)
o Wash, then cut
o “tea; do’t overook
- General route of vitamins
o Water-soluble: SI > blood stream (bound to blood proteins) > cells
o Fat-soluble: SI > micelle (vit incorporated) > mucosa cell > chylomicrons (vit
packaged) > lymph > blood
- Some vitamins absorbed as provitamins: INACTIVE forms; must be activated to be used
(ex. Riboflavin helps activate)
Water-Soluble Vitamins vs. Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Water-Soluble
Fat-Soluble
Absorption
SI > blood stream
SI > micelles > mucosa >
chylomicron > blood > lymph
Transport
None
Protein carriers
Storage
Thruout body
Adipose tissue/fat cells
Excretion
Kidney, urine
Less likely
Toxicity
Only from supplements
More likely
Requirement
Frequently (1-3 days)
Periodically (weeks mnths)
Vitamin Absorption/Transportation
1. Mouth
a. Chewing; release vitamins
2. Stomach
a. Chemical digestion; release vitamins
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b. Some niacin absorbed here
3. Gallbladder/Pancreas
a. GB releases bile (made in liver); emulsifies fat, helps absorb fat-sol vitamins
b. Pancreas secretes digestive enzymes; release vitamins
4. SI
a. Water-sol: SI > blood
i. Require binding transports
ii. B12 (absorbed in lower SI)
b. Fat-sol: incorporated into micelle > diffusion > mucosa cell (vit incorporated) >
chylomicrons (vit packaged) > lymph > blood
5. LI
a. Synthesize/absorb small amt of vitamins (ex. K)
Vitamin Functions: Coenzymes and Antioxidants
- Coenzymes: binds to enzymes to promote activity/rate of reactions
- Antioxidants: prevent free radicals from (oxidative) damaging cells
The Nitty-Gritty of Each Vitamin Water-Soluble
- Vitamin Bs:
o Directly involved in converting energy > ATP
- Vitamin C:
o Synthesizes tissues, protect against free radical/oxidative dmg
o Contain antioxidants
Thiamin (B1)
Sources
Functions
Deficiency
At-Risk Group
Toxicity
Whole/enriched
grains, legumes
-Coenzyme for
glucose (convert
pyruvate
acetyle CoA)
-Energy
metabolism
(nerve function
coz of glucose as
energy for cells)
-Synthesize
neurotransmitters
-Neurological and
physical
problems
-Beriberi;
Warnicke-
Kosakoff
Developing
countries,
alcoholics
None
- Berieri I aot, I aot:
o Neurological: apathy, irritability
o Physical: weakness, nerve tingling, poor coordination, heart changes
o Developing countries; lack whole wheat in diet (bran)
- Warnicke-Kosakoff:
o Neurological: confusion, psychosis, memory disturbance, coma
o Alcoholics (alcohol lowers thiamin absorption)
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