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Psyc 303 Chapter 10 Perceptual Constancies. Exam Review

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 303
Thomas Spalek

Ch10 Aspects of viewing situation - Light source - Surface reflectance - Surface orientation - Viewing position Generic Viewpoint - Human vision tends to ignore low-probability coincidences and focuses on interpretations that assume edge relations are generally true and would hold when object is viewed from variety of angles and positions Perceptual Constancy - Our perceptions of objects and scenes do not vary nearly as much as the fluctuations in the images of those same objects and scenes - Size constancy o Ability to see an object as being the same size despite changes in objective distance and retinal image size o Leads us to think some objects in distance are larger o Ponzo Illusion  Two converging lines are automatically interpreted as cues to distance  top line is seen as longer - Mueller-Lyer illusion o A seems shorter than B o Moon Illusiont  Moon on horizon appears bigger than moon in the sky - Shape Constancy o Perception of the enduring shape of an object despite wide variation in the shape projected to our eyes o If we push a door outward it is no longer a rectangle but we recognize it as such - Lightness Constancy (aka brightness constancy) o What proportion of light is reflected from an object’s surface independent of the amount of light shining on the surface o Two factors decide the light on any point on the retinal image  External illuminance  Amount of light from all light sources in the scene that fall on the object  Surface reflectance  Proportion of light falling on the object that is reflected to the observer o Ratio principle  It is the relative brightness that matters o Anchoring  One stimulus is chosen as a reference and the lightness of other objects are judged against it - Colour constancy o The perceived colour or hue of an object has a similar enduring quality in the face of different lighting conditions o Similar theories as to lightness constancy - Position Constancy o Even though objects are often in motion we do not experience them as moving o Two parts  Object position constancy  Position of objects relative to one another (remains the same even
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