Biology 2200- Impacts on the Environment

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BIOL 2200
Joseph Rasmussen

Biology 2200 th Nov.19 , 2013 Coupled autotrophic and heterotrophic processes cycle matter between the inorganic and organic domains of the biosphere. - Autotrophic process (assimilatory) transformations that incorporate inorganic forms of elements into the molecules of organisms - Heterotrophic process (dissimilatory)  transformation that results in the oxidation of the organic form of an element - These two processes are in equilibrium for the most part - The energy used is not recycled but the materials being used are - Energy enters in short wave form and leaves in long wave form Living processes sometimes provide the energy source to drive other material transformations and physical reactions - This is a much faster process - Wind energy drives a big part of the evaporation cycle - Heat energy is captured and stored then released upon condensation - It is important for organisms to evaporate sufficient water or they will shut down and the process efficiency will decrease - Water from the soil is being pumped up through plants and evaporated at the surface - Plant growth efficiency is impacted by the water cycle The Global Water Cycle is driven mainly by the sun’s energy—involves state changes not chemical changes - evaporation rate of water would be much lower if it wasn’t for all the living plants on Earth - What is the residence time of water in the atmosphere? o The amount of atmospheric water (13)/the rate of it coming back to the surface (385+111) Carbonate precipitation can also be driven by photosynthesis and sometimes animal metabolism - Much of the carbon is stored in limestone - Energy from the sun is the driving force of the carbon cycle - CO2 in air and carbonates and bicarbonates dissolved in water control pH Plant growth, especially trees, can also facilitate weathering, which releases dissolved substances from bedrock. - Weathering is the physical and chemical breakdown of rocks - It is the most important input to the biosphere for many elements - Weathering gets ampli
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