[CPSC 355] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (117 pages long!)

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CPSC 355
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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CPSC 355 Lecture 2 - Sept 14th
Computer Architectures and Assembly Language
Programming
High-level Architecture
A basic computer system consists of:
o Central Processing Unit(CPU)
o System Clock
o Primary memory
Also called Random Access Memory (RAM)
o Secondary memory
Usually a hard disk drive (HDD)
o Peripheral input and output devices
Eg: Keyboard, monitor
o Bus
CPU Clock
/|\
|
\|/
------------------------------------------------- Bus -----------------------------------------------
/|\ /|\ /|\ /|\
| | | |
\|/ \|/ \|/ \|/
Primary Memory (RAM) Secondary Memory (HDD) Keyboard Monitor
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CPU
Is the brains of any computer system
o Executes instructions (i.e. a program)
o Controls the transfer of data across the bus
Is usually contained on a single microprocessor chip
o Eg: Intel Core i5, APM883208-X1, Apple A7
Consist of 3 main parts:
o Control Unit (CU)
o Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
o Registers
The CU directs the execution of instructions
o Loads an operation code (opcode) from primary memory into the
Instruction Register (IR)
o Decode the opcode to identify the operation
o If necessary, transfer data between primary memory and registers
o If necessary, directs the ALU to operate on data in registers
The ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations on data stored in registers
o Eg: Add numbers store in 2 source registers, and store the results in a
destination register
o Eg: Do a bitwise AND using data in 2 registers
Registers are binary storage units within the CPU
o May contain:
Data
Addresses
Instructions
Status information
o Eg: General-purpose registers are used by a programmer to temporarily
hold data and addresses
o Eg: The Program Counter (PC) contains the address in memory of the
currently executing instruction
Is incremented to execute the next instruction
o Eg: The Status Register (SR) contains information (flags) about the results of
a previous instruction
Eg: overflow, or carry
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