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GRST 205 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Tiberius Gracchus, Ancient Greek Temple, Plebeian Council

Greek and Roman Studies
Course Code
GRST 205
Lindsay Gayle Driediger- Murphy
Study Guide

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GRST 205
Midterm #3 ALL NOTES
Rome: Middle Republic 264-133
During 3rd c. BC, there are 1st and 2nd Punic Wars. In these wars, Rome acquires
Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, and Spain.
3rd-2nd c. BC= Wars with Macedonian Kingdoms in Macedon and Syria. Plus the
final war with Carthage.
By 133 BC Rome has gained control of North Africa, Macedon, Greece and
Asia Minor.
Greek Hellenistic Period 323-31 BC (Romans intervene in Greece during Roman
Middle Republic (264-133 BC) which is during the Hellenistic period. There is an
overlap in Greek + Roman history.
After death of Alexander, the generals divide his conquests between them.
“Hellenistic Kingdoms”
oThe Generals like to think that they too are great conquerors like
Alexander. Because of this, it’s hard to be a king during this time because
if a general wanted to split up your kingdom, you’d let him unless you
wanted a fight.
The generals kept Greek Poleis on their side by offering “Freedoms” such as
freedom from taxation, freedom from garrison (guards) and right to their own
oGreek poleis also change sides if they like another king/general better.
oThis shows that the Greeks are used to asking for help. Which will cause
problems when they ask the Romans for help and aren’t treated like they’d
Inscriptions explaining Greek life and culture at this time:
oColossus of Rhodes: People of Rhodes believed Heracles was a real guy
that created the race the Dorians. They thought they were descendants of
this race.
oCity of Miletus about the Seleucid King Antiochus I: The king will build a
“stoa” (public building) that will make money. The money will go to
building a temple and the rest will be offered to the Gods. The citizens of
Miletus will “give the land” to the King. (Creates allusion that citizens
have any power)
Wars of Early 2nd c. BC= Philip V (to 197) and Antiochus III (to 198)
oRomans are afraid and paranoid Macedon will overpower them, so they
attack Macedon.
oPlutarch describes Greek freedom: A Roman general at a public event
announced the kings were gone, and Greeks were free. But Roman
treatment turns out to be much worse.
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By 146 BC: Carthage and Corinth are destroyed. Macedon and Greece become
Achaean League makes itself go to war with Rome in 146 BC, for one last chance
at freedom but they very quickly lose.
Freedom to Romans means you’ll do what they say. Greeks are used to
negotiating with Kings. Romans do not do this.
Roman Religion:
1) Recipients of Worship:
a. Like Greeks, Romans worshipped divine beings like Gods, Goddesses,
and spirits. (Polytheism)
b. Romans had their own indigenous divine beings but their portrayals were
influenced by Etruscan and Greek ideas and art.
c. E.g. Roman silver coin (denarius) depicting Gods in Greek style (Minerva
and Zeus)
d. Romans also worshipped the Gods of other peoples. (Same name different
epithet) E.g. Juno Regina (Etruria/Rome) Juno Sospita (Italian), and Juno
Calelestis (Carthage)
e. Romans persuaded patron gods of enemy cities to defect to Rome. (Ritual
called Evocatio) E.g. Scipio Aemillanus at Carthage 146 BC: Prayed to
Carthaginian Gods to come to Rome so that they could worship them
2) Places of Worship:
a. Romans practiced domestic religion, both individually and publically with
the government.
b. Greek Temple of Hephaistos (449-413BC) has base of steps (stylobase)
and naos, an empty space for the statue of the divine being. It is also
peripteral, meaning columns on all sides.
c. VS. Roman Temple ‘Maison Carree’ that had a much taller stylobase, a
frontal axis so you could only go in one way, and big space for statues
known as the cella, and contained pediments like Greek temples.
3) Ways of Worship
a. Roman Sacrifice: Key Players
i. Officiate: Emperor: Gives sacrifice to Gods but does not do actual
ii. Victimarius= Wearing most practical clothes, actually kills animal.
iii. Flute player= Plays music to cover up mistakes in the ritual.
iv. Haruspex= Looks at the internal organs and reads messages from
the Gods.
v. When the people above are involved, it’s a state sacrifice
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b. Individual Sacrifice: Individuals made offerings (votives) to
commemorate prayer requests and answers to prayers. (Models of body
parts they want healed as an example)
4) Actors: Who Worships?
a. Cicero 1st c. AD: Says that the same man who manages state should
manage religion. The republic is the state, and they handle the government
and religion. (Only publically)
Rome: Late Republic (133-31 BC)
Political and economic problems:
There is a growing divide between rich and poor. The more Rome conquers, the
wealthier the rich get.
Tribunes of the Plebs use plebeian assembly against the wishes of the Senate/elite.
Rise of a middle class non-senate business man, Publicani
oPressure for political influence. It’s not bad, but it means more people and
groups to fight with.
oCauses more extreme political competition.
Cursus Honorum (Course of Office)
o2 consuls at very top. They are highest regular magistrates; command
o8 Praetors. They work like judges and manage courts and military
o4 Aediles: They run the public services in Rome like Aqueducts, baths,
and structures.
o10 tribunes of the Plebs: Only Plebeians. AND 20 Quaestors: the financial
assistants to higher magistrates, which act to audit the senate.
Men who wanted to become consul had to fight fiercely to get to the top.
oAs a result there is a lot of distant and lucrative campaigns in 1st c. BC
oExpansion continues, but not to protect Rome, but to get glory and booty
and prestige to bring back and get higher on political ladder.
Increased Power for Roman Generals
By the end of 2nd c. BC, any Roman can enlist in the army. These men are looking
to their generals for booty and promotions.
Army stops recruiting when needed, and enlists troops for permanent positions to
make the army more professional.
Romans switched away from hoplite warfare and use big rectangular shields that
go outwards to protect the whole body.
Political Violence
Opponents are actively killing roman politicians when they’re not liked.
oE.g. Tiberius Gracchus= Wanted to hand out land owned by the state to
Roman citizens, he thought the state should help the citizens but others
argued that it encouraged lazy people.
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