KNES 201 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Motivation, Timesdaily, Fit For LifePremium
5 pages101 viewsFall 2017
SchoolUniversity of Calgary
Course CodeKNES 201
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KNES 201 – FINAL EXAM REVIEW
DEVELOPING PHYSICAL LITERACY IN THE EARLY YEARS (LEAH YARDLEY)
• PL = confidence, competence, motivation, knowledge, and understanding.
• 3 core concepts in early development:
o Experiences build brain architecture
o Serve and return interaction shapes brain circuitry
o Toxic stress derails healthy development
• 90% of brain’s development happens before the age of 5
• Early years = develop a strong foundation for movement by performing a variety of repeated movements,
expose children to FMS and the opportunity to practice them, expose children to different environments,
provide the opportunity for a challenge (risk!), and provide lots of playtime!
• The early years: motor development starts with ________ and ends with ___________
• Play = freely chosen, personally directed, intrinsically motivated behaviour that engages a child
• APPLE (active play & physical literacy everyday) = curiosity (motivated to move) → exploration (confident to
move) → repetition to mastery (competent to move) → confidence = PHYSICAL LITERACY
• Till age 9 = provide ample opportunity to move. Ages 7-10 = optimum time to teach. Age 10+ = remedial work
• Canadian PA guidelines: age 0-1 (PA several times daily), ages 1-4 (180 minutes daily @ any intensity – met by
70% of children under 4), ages 5-17 (60 minutes MVPA daily – met by 9% of this age group)
• Intrinsic motivation: innate, freely chosen, sustained until child wants. Extrinsic motivation: external reward,
adult initiated, must be sustained with continual offerings. CHALLENGE + SUCCESS = MOTIVATION
• Good risk = safe as necessary, not safe as possible; is essential, expect bumps/bruises; must be age-appropriate
• EXAMPLES: ↑heights, ↑speed, dangerous tools, dangerous natural elements, rough/tumble, disappear/get lost
• “risky play” – stop + assess – real protection = teaching kids to manage risks on their own, not shielding from
• Children = ↑active outdoors and in natural settings (rather than manmade settings). ↑freedom = ↑PA
• Positive AND negative experiences are built into brain architecture – can impact future PA participation
PHYSICAL LITERACY ASSESSMENT & MEASUREMENT – ASHLEY FOX
• The process of assessments and measurements for PL: plan (spend time; what are we trying to accomplish?) →
execute → evaluate (has there been any change? What were the effects of the plan? Was it effective?)
• Why do we need to assess/measure? Aim to continually improve and develop PL
• Measuring physical activity (sessions), fitness (testing), or physical literacy (still in its infancy – Dr. Tremblay & Dr.
Lloyd’s The Missing Piece + Sport4Life & Dr. Kriellaars’ PL Assessment for Youth or PLAY tools)
• 4 PL elements: motivation/confidence, knowledge/understanding, physical competence, engage in PA for life
• Risks of using PL assessments: negative environment, discouraging, alternate uses of results, ↑/↓ attention
from leader based on scores, assessor not trained properly?
• Rewards of using PL assessments: baseline for learning, encouragement + challenge, more attention where
needed, skill development, lesson planning, assesses multiple items
• CAPL = Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy BY Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group in Ottawa
o measures (step counting, knowledge & understanding evaluation, daily behaviour, motivation/
confidence questionnaire, obstacle course to evaluate physical competence). TESTED AT MRU!
• PLAYfun (competence/confidence/comprehension), PLAYcoach, PLAYself, PLAYparent, PLAYbasic (locomotion/
throwing/kicking/balancing), PLAYinventory (inventory of activities + participation)
o 4 point scoring system – Initial (developing), Emerging (developing), Competent (acquired), Proficient
(acquired). Use a 100mm scale (chart with 25/100 mm in each stage)
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o Top proficiency score = very best anyone could be at the skill regardless of age
• PLAY Tools include measures of Confidence (Low) and Comprehension of each task. If a child requires a prompt,
mimics their peers, requires assessor to describe the task or demonstrate, this is noted in the assessment.
• Females @ age 10 already ↓competent/confident (Cochrane). Want females AND males to develop their skills!
• Run there and back, hop, overhand throw, kick ball, balance walk backwards (toe to heel)
THE NATURE SOLUTION ACROSS THE LIFESPAN – JANICE COOK
• Nature = significant role in PA and PL. Nature Play & Risky Play are key!
• Dimensions of health: physical, emotional, intellectual, social, spiritual – ↑health w/PL and w/NATURE!
• PL = motivation, confidence, physical competence, knowledge & understanding, value and responsibility, for life!
• 5 core PL principles: inclusive & accessible to all, unique journeys, range of experiences (different environments
and contexts), need to be value and nurtured throughout life, contributes to development of whole person
• 5 PL environments: ground, air, water, ice/snow, outdoors
• 4 key components of outdoor: nature (nature play), adventure and risk (risky play), beauty/aesthetics (pull
factors), outdoor activities and FMS (stability/locomotor/object identification)
• Early years (ages 0-4) & active start (ages 0-6): variety of movements/environments, ↓screen time, movement
exploration, ↑outdoor time. BRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN THESE YEARS, DEVELOPING CONNECTION TO NATURE
• Developing PL → social benefits, cognitive benefits, emotional benefits
• “Protection Paradox” – the overprotective nature of trying to keep kids safe by keeping them indoors and away
from risks. Parents overly concerned about safety, but inactivity/sedentary living is much more dangerous
• Active Outdoor Play = Movement to get children playing outdoors bc ↑outdoor time = ↓sitting & ↑playing –
essential for healthy child development and developing PL
• RICHARD LOUV: 1) Nature Deficit Disorder = Last Child in the Woods (2005) – disconnect from nature harms kids
– “leave no child inside” movement. 2) The Nature Principle
• The Nature Principle = adults ↓connection w/nature.
o PT 1: Nature Neurons (developing ↑senses in nature, creativity, capcaity to learn/pay attention/engage
o PT 2: VitN (turning to power of natural world →fitness:↑self-esteem/mood/vigour, ↓stress/depression)
• Wilson 1984: Biophilia = love for nature & living things, DNA level, evolutionary, nature prescription, ecotherapy
• UK – ‘Project Wild Thing’ (2014) selling nature – swap screen time for wild time
• Norway/Sweden - 'Friluftsliv’ (returning to nature = returning home). Japan/Korea – Forest Bathing. Indigenous
Cultures – Connection to Land and Place. Australia – Healthy Parks, Healthy People. MINDFUL VS MIND FULL
• Attention restoration theory: directed attention (voluntary + fatigues) vs soft fascination attention (involuntary)
o 4 aspects of soft attention (Kaplan): “get away”, nature holds attention + mind wanders, deep
experience, affinity with nature allows attention to rest. “AUTHENTIC HAPPINESS, DELIGHTFUL PLACES”
• Adventure: uncertain outcome, risks (soft/extreme/misadventure), ↑energy, inescapable consequences, choice
• Will Gadd adventurer, 46 YO, sense of pride for making use of his days, no regrets, being alive & living – MOVE
• PA ≠ exercise or fitness. PA includes active transportation, daily activities, playing, walking (≠ sitting). Average
Albertan is sedentary 8.25-9.7 hour/day – 1/3 of Albertans are sedentary for 10+ hours daily
• Outdoor activities have assets of nature, adventure and aesthetics/beauty which may promote motivation
• Inspiration: Mountaineer Don Forest (1920-2003), began @ 41 YOA, climbed all 56 peaks of Rockies by 59 YOA,
oldest person to reach Mount Logan peak @ 71 YOA, died skiing at 83 YOA.
ADAPTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR ALL (STATS, BARRIERS, MODIFICATIONS, LTAD)
• Dear everybody: if we can’t include everyone in a game, we aren’t playing it right at all
• 1 in every 7 Canadians experience disability (13.7%)
• 75% of school-aged children with a disability reported having multiple disabilities. The prevalence of disability
↑w/age. Almost 33% of Canadian seniors reported having a disability.
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