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Midterm

KNES 201 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Motivation, Timesdaily, Fit For LifePremium

5 pages101 viewsFall 2017

Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KNES 201
Professor
Megan McKinlay
Study Guide
Midterm

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KNES 201 FINAL EXAM REVIEW
DEVELOPING PHYSICAL LITERACY IN THE EARLY YEARS (LEAH YARDLEY)
PL = confidence, competence, motivation, knowledge, and understanding.
3 core concepts in early development:
o Experiences build brain architecture
o Serve and return interaction shapes brain circuitry
o Toxic stress derails healthy development
90% of brain’s development happens before the age of 5
Early years = develop a strong foundation for movement by performing a variety of repeated movements,
expose children to FMS and the opportunity to practice them, expose children to different environments,
provide the opportunity for a challenge (risk!), and provide lots of playtime!
The early years: motor development starts with ________ and ends with ___________
Play = freely chosen, personally directed, intrinsically motivated behaviour that engages a child
APPLE (active play & physical literacy everyday) = curiosity (motivated to move) exploration (confident to
move) repetition to mastery (competent to move) confidence = PHYSICAL LITERACY
Till age 9 = provide ample opportunity to move. Ages 7-10 = optimum time to teach. Age 10+ = remedial work
Canadian PA guidelines: age 0-1 (PA several times daily), ages 1-4 (180 minutes daily @ any intensity met by
70% of children under 4), ages 5-17 (60 minutes MVPA daily met by 9% of this age group)
Intrinsic motivation: innate, freely chosen, sustained until child wants. Extrinsic motivation: external reward,
adult initiated, must be sustained with continual offerings. CHALLENGE + SUCCESS = MOTIVATION
Good risk = safe as necessary, not safe as possible; is essential, expect bumps/bruises; must be age-appropriate
EXAMPLES: ↑heights, speed, dangerous tools, dangerous natural elements, rough/tumble, disappear/get lost
“risky play” – stop + assess real protection = teaching kids to manage risks on their own, not shielding from
every hazard
Children = active outdoors and in natural settings (rather than manmade settings). freedom = PA
Positive AND negative experiences are built into brain architecture can impact future PA participation
PHYSICAL LITERACY ASSESSMENT & MEASUREMENT ASHLEY FOX
The process of assessments and measurements for PL: plan (spend time; what are we trying to accomplish?)
execute evaluate (has there been any change? What were the effects of the plan? Was it effective?)
Why do we need to assess/measure? Aim to continually improve and develop PL
Measuring physical activity (sessions), fitness (testing), or physical literacy (still in its infancy Dr. Tremblay & Dr.
Lloyd’s The Missing Piece + Sport4Life & Dr. Kriellaars’ PL Assessment for Youth or PLAY tools)
4 PL elements: motivation/confidence, knowledge/understanding, physical competence, engage in PA for life
Risks of using PL assessments: negative environment, discouraging, alternate uses of results, / attention
from leader based on scores, assessor not trained properly?
Rewards of using PL assessments: baseline for learning, encouragement + challenge, more attention where
needed, skill development, lesson planning, assesses multiple items
CAPL = Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy BY Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group in Ottawa
o measures (step counting, knowledge & understanding evaluation, daily behaviour, motivation/
confidence questionnaire, obstacle course to evaluate physical competence). TESTED AT MRU!
PLAYfun (competence/confidence/comprehension), PLAYcoach, PLAYself, PLAYparent, PLAYbasic (locomotion/
throwing/kicking/balancing), PLAYinventory (inventory of activities + participation)
o 4 point scoring system Initial (developing), Emerging (developing), Competent (acquired), Proficient
(acquired). Use a 100mm scale (chart with 25/100 mm in each stage)
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o Top proficiency score = very best anyone could be at the skill regardless of age
PLAY Tools include measures of Confidence (Low) and Comprehension of each task. If a child requires a prompt,
mimics their peers, requires assessor to describe the task or demonstrate, this is noted in the assessment.
Females @ age 10 already competent/confident (Cochrane). Want females AND males to develop their skills!
Run there and back, hop, overhand throw, kick ball, balance walk backwards (toe to heel)
THE NATURE SOLUTION ACROSS THE LIFESPAN JANICE COOK
Nature = significant role in PA and PL. Nature Play & Risky Play are key!
Dimensions of health: physical, emotional, intellectual, social, spiritual health w/PL and w/NATURE!
PL = motivation, confidence, physical competence, knowledge & understanding, value and responsibility, for life!
5 core PL principles: inclusive & accessible to all, unique journeys, range of experiences (different environments
and contexts), need to be value and nurtured throughout life, contributes to development of whole person
5 PL environments: ground, air, water, ice/snow, outdoors
4 key components of outdoor: nature (nature play), adventure and risk (risky play), beauty/aesthetics (pull
factors), outdoor activities and FMS (stability/locomotor/object identification)
Early years (ages 0-4) & active start (ages 0-6): variety of movements/environments, screen time, movement
exploration, outdoor time. BRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN THESE YEARS, DEVELOPING CONNECTION TO NATURE
Developing PL social benefits, cognitive benefits, emotional benefits
“Protection Paradox” – the overprotective nature of trying to keep kids safe by keeping them indoors and away
from risks. Parents overly concerned about safety, but inactivity/sedentary living is much more dangerous
Active Outdoor Play = Movement to get children playing outdoors bc outdoor time = sitting & playing
essential for healthy child development and developing PL
RICHARD LOUV: 1) Nature Deficit Disorder = Last Child in the Woods (2005) disconnect from nature harms kids
“leave no child inside” movement. 2) The Nature Principle
The Nature Principle = adults connection w/nature.
o PT 1: Nature Neurons (developing senses in nature, creativity, capcaity to learn/pay attention/engage
o PT 2: VitN (turning to power of natural world fitness:self-esteem/mood/vigour, stress/depression)
Wilson 1984: Biophilia = love for nature & living things, DNA level, evolutionary, nature prescription, ecotherapy
UK ‘Project Wild Thing’ (2014) selling nature swap screen time for wild time
Norway/Sweden - 'Friluftsliv’ (returning to nature = returning home). Japan/Korea Forest Bathing. Indigenous
Cultures Connection to Land and Place. Australia Healthy Parks, Healthy People. MINDFUL VS MIND FULL
Attention restoration theory: directed attention (voluntary + fatigues) vs soft fascination attention (involuntary)
o 4 aspects of soft attention (Kaplan): “get away”, nature holds attention + mind wanders, deep
experience, affinity with nature allows attention to rest. “AUTHENTIC HAPPINESS, DELIGHTFUL PLACES
Adventure: uncertain outcome, risks (soft/extreme/misadventure), energy, inescapable consequences, choice
Will Gadd adventurer, 46 YO, sense of pride for making use of his days, no regrets, being alive & living MOVE
PA exercise or fitness. PA includes active transportation, daily activities, playing, walking ( sitting). Average
Albertan is sedentary 8.25-9.7 hour/day 1/3 of Albertans are sedentary for 10+ hours daily
Outdoor activities have assets of nature, adventure and aesthetics/beauty which may promote motivation
Inspiration: Mountaineer Don Forest (1920-2003), began @ 41 YOA, climbed all 56 peaks of Rockies by 59 YOA,
oldest person to reach Mount Logan peak @ 71 YOA, died skiing at 83 YOA.
ADAPTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR ALL (STATS, BARRIERS, MODIFICATIONS, LTAD)
Dear everybody: if we can’t include everyone in a game, we aren’t playing it right at all
1 in every 7 Canadians experience disability (13.7%)
75% of school-aged children with a disability reported having multiple disabilities. The prevalence of disability
w/age. Almost 33% of Canadian seniors reported having a disability.
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