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Final

KNES 330 Final: Final

17 pages78 viewsWinter 2016

Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KNES 330
Professor
Janice Cook
Study Guide
Final

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1
KNES 330 Study Guide
Flexibility Overview and Assessment
ROM
Range of motion
The measured beginning and terminal angles, as well as the total degrees of motion, traversed by a joint moved by
active muscles contracting or by passive movement
ROM is quantitative
Flexibility
The ability of a joint, or a series of joints, to move fluidly (smoothly and easily) through a full range of motion
(ROM) without pain or undue strain on the joint.
Flexibility is measured qualitatively
Specificity
Joint specific
Side of body specific
Action / sport specific
Speed specific
This is not the same as variability
Laxity
It is the looseness or freedom of movement in a joint that can be excessive or abnormal
It can be caused by:
o Chronic or acute injury (ACL tears, AC separation for example)
o Congenital conditions such as Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and Marfan Syndrome
Laxity is objective
Instability
The state of being unstable, or lacking stability
The abnormal tendency of a joint to sublux or dislocate with normal activities and stresses
Also includes:
o Abnormal joint motion
o Pathological joint motion
o Reported dysfunction
o Inability to maintain control
Instability is subjective
Hyper-flexibility
Range of motion in excess of normal
Hypo-flexibility
Tight, limited range of motion
Relative Compensatory Flexibility
Taking on the path of least resistance
Imbalance
Difference in flexibility or strength between agonist and antagonist
Mobility versus stability stability is preferred over mobility
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Types of Flexibility (So Brownie Does Flippin’ Perfect Acronyms)
Static
o Movement is held in one position for an extended period of time
o It can be self-propagated or assisted
Ballistic
o Bouncing, bobbing, out of control type motion at high velocity
o Movements may go beyond normal range of motion
Dynamic
o Full range of motion as normal or fast speeds
o Requires muscle activation to move the joint
Functional
o Flexibility that is necessary for the activity to be participated in
o Required for sport and includes strength
Passive
o The mobility around a joint that can be attained by moving the joint to an end feel
o No active contraction
Active
o Use of one’s muscle without assistance
o Mobility around a joint the supporting muscles can attain
Purpose of Assessment of Flexibility
Flexibility as a component of physical fitness / movement function
Sport teams / athletes to assess for injury risk and to address tightness and to enhance performance
Injury assessment and rehabilitation
Research studies
o Validity
o Reliability
Disease identification
o Hypermobility
Down Syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos, and Marfan Syndrome
o Hypomobility
Diabetes, fibromyalgia, growth
Flexibility Assessment:
Cureton’s Test
o Floor touch
o Trunk extension
o Trunk forward bend
Wells and Dillon
o Sit and reach
Measurements:
o Linear units linear distance between two body parts
o Angular units joint angles are measured in degrees
o Dimensionless
Flexibility Limitation and Flexitest
Structural Limitations
Bone
Muscle
Joint capsule
Tendons
Skin
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End Feels
Normal End Feel
o Bone to bone
o Elbow extension
o Painless
Firm End Feel
o Hard or firm with slight give, elastic resistance
o Ligaments and joint capsule
o Ankle dorsiflexion, shoulder, finger extension
Soft End Feel
o Soft tissue approximation
o Knee flexion, elbow flexion
Abnormal
o Muscle spasm
o Capsular ROM is reduced without muscle spasm
o Bone to bone: bony sensation where there should be no bony sensation
o Empty: no real mechanical resistance to a motion that usually has one, pain is felt
o Springy block: a stop with a slight rebound in a ROM that usually does not have a stop
Functional Limitations
Nervous system activity
Muscle tension
Lack of strength and coordination in active movements
Inflammation and pain
Contraindications of Stretching
Pain / Plain Medication
Injury fracture, sprain, strain (though it is recommended to stretch within comfort zone
Joint integrity / stability
Inflammation or infection
Medication vascular integrity
Osteoporosis
Flexibility Training Recommendations
Frequency: 4 7 sesions, daily is best
Duration: 30 second hold
Intensity: Stretching should never be painful
Type: slow, sustained static stretches
Guidelines:
o Work within limits
o Warm up first
o Best to stretch after cardiovascular exercise
Assessment Tests:
Cureton’s Trunk Extension
o Participants lies in prone position and raises trunk, distance is measured from mid-forehead to ground
Stick Test for Shoulder Flexibility
o Participants lies prone on floor with arms above head, grasping a stick and lifting it
Self-Compassion and Stress Management
Self-Compassion
It is simply giving the same kindness to ourselves that we would give to others.
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