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[PHIL 259] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (37 pages long)


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 259
Professor
David Boutland
Study Guide
Final

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UofC
PHIL 259
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1: Class Introduction
Philosophy of Love & Sex
Eros love, sex, Greek god of love
Conceptual Analysis
How is each properly characterized?
o What is love?
o What is sex?
o What are their interrelations?
Is (erotic) love a good or an evil?
o Depends on definition. E.g., love is intellect/spiritual union/self-completion, or kind of
insanity
o Compatible w/ friendship & equality, or self-defeating drive to have what you can’t have?
History of Erotic Love
Realist & idealist understandings of love
The Greeks: Plato’s Symposium
Christian understandings: Augustine, Heloise, & Abelard
Love as union: Hegel, Nozick
Love as struggle to possess, pathology, ideology & oppression: Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, de
Beauvoir
Love, Marriage, Gender
Do they go together like a horse & carriage?
Is marriage inimical to love? (Heloise)
Revolutionary idea of marriage as friendship b/w equal partners (Milton)
Is healthy companionate love possible in a society incorporating gender inequality? (de
Beauvoir, Firestone)
Sex & Gender
What is sex? What is gender? Are they essential/constructed categories?
Are two sexes enough? Are two genders enough?
What problems arise out of such binaries?
Sexual Ethics
What does it mean to “have sex”? (Christina)
What kings of sexual acts are wrong? (Elliston, Halwani)
Is sexual objectification wrong? (Nussbaum)
o Is sex always, or often, objectifying, & is that a moral problem?
What is the moral status of pornography & prostitution?
Death
Who/what is the person, the being that dies?
o Is it conceivable that the person could survive bodily death?
What is death?
o Changing technology makes answer more pressing
Terry Schiavo case
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Jahi McMath case
Is a brain death death?
Death, Killing, & Ethics
Why is it wrong to kill? Is it always wrong to kill?
What about killing oneself, or someone who consents?
Is there a moral difference b/w killing & letting die?
Is life valuable under all circumstance?
Fearing Death
Is it rational to fear death?
Can death be bad for us? Epicurus says, we won’t be there, so how can it harm us?
Can thinking about death have any positives?
Philosophy
Systematic rational thought questioning the nature of things
o Logic
o Metaphysics
o Epistemology
o Ethics
What makes these inquiries philosophical in the kings of questions asked & the method used to
answer them?
Logic, the science of reasoning
Distinguish empirical inquiry
A Philosophical argument is a set of connected sentencespremiseswith a conclusion
1. Socrates is a man
2. All men are mortal
3. Socrates is mortal
Validity & Soundness; Are the premises true? Is the reasoning strong?
Contrast rhetoric & opinion
As You Read… Ask
What is the author’s conclusion? What is she trying to prove?
What reasons is she fiving for this view? Are they good reasons (i.e., are the premises
plausible, do they support the conclusion)?
As You Write
Some basic rules of reasoning
o Non-contradiction
o Relevance
Accuracy
Precision
Clarity
How to write a philosophy paper: http://www.phil.ucalgary.ca/undergrad/howtowrite.html
Readings
Questions
o How to Phaedrus & Pausanias praise love?
o What kind of love relationships do they focus on?
o What story does Aristophanes tell?
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