ANSC 3180 Study Guide - Final Guide: Northern Flying Squirrel, Arctic Ground Squirrel, Big Brown Bat

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ANSC*3180 Wildlife Nutrition Final Review Notes
Lecture Series 4: Food Habits
What Do Animals Eat?
- Polyphages: generalists, eat variety of foods / food species (can also be used to mean omnivores)
oExample: ruffed grouse eats 300+ plant species, 100+ small mammal species
- Monophages: specialists, eat only one kind of food / food species
oExample: snail kite eats only a single freshwater snail species, apple snail
- Obligate: consume only one category of food all adult life
oExample: felids eat vertebrate animal species, eat little or no plant food
- Facultative: may change category of food eaten, through seasons of year, etc.
Carnivores
- All animal products, not only muscle meat
- Predators catch live prey (e.g. bobcat, mountain lion, coyote, longtail weasel, hawks, etc.)
- Scavengers find dead prey (e.g. turkey vulture)
- Planktonivores eat plankton (e.g. Caribbean flamingo, baleen whales)
- Spongivores eat sponges (e.g. green sea turtle, silica spikes need mucus in gut)
- Crustacivores eat shrimp, crabs (chitin exoskeleton) (e.g. oyster catcher, some penguins)
- Insectivores eat insects (chitin exoskeleton) (e.g. little brown bat, brown creeper)
oSome egest exoskeletons (e.g. kestrels, flycatchers, swallows)
oSome remove part of the exoskeleton (e.g. grasshopper sparrows remove grasshopper wings)
oSome have chitinase which breaks down the chitin
- Myremcophages eat ants and termites (e.g. echidnas, numbat, tamanduas, pangolins, etc.)
- Molluscivores eat snails, clams, mussels, oysters, squid, slugs (e.g. limpkin, snail kite, oystercatchers)
- Piscivores eat fish (e.g. river otter, common loon, belted kingfisher, brown pelican, etc.)
- Sanquivores eat blood (e.g. vampire bats, sharp-beaked ground finch)
- Carnivores eat reptiles, amphibians, mammals, birds (e.g. mink, wolf, hawks, etc.)
Omnivores
- Eat variety of feed stuffs, both animal and plant → are opportunistic feeders, seasonal foods
- Should obtain wide variety of nutrients
- Examples: flying squirrel, crow, ring-billed gull, raccoon, skunk
Herbivores
- All plant products → green leaves, stems, but also roots, fruits, seeds, pollen, nectar, exudates, bark
- All plant groups → not only monocotyledons (grasses, including wheat, maize, rice, sugar cane), but
also dicotyledons (such as forbs, shrubs, trees) and phytoplankton, fungi, algae, lichens, mosses, ferns
- Grazers eat mainly grass and some forbs (non-woody plants at ground level)
oExamples: cattle, sheep, yak, buffalo, bison, meadow vole, sea urchins (algae), etc.
oGrass / roughage (bulk) feeders (GR) are equivalent to grazers
Eat grass, more fibrous plant material
Reticulorumen 50-60% larger than concentrate selectors
Examples: cattle, sheep, mouflon, yak, buffalo, bison, camels, hippos, horses, kangaroos
- Browsers eat leaves, buds, shoots, twigs (from shrubs, trees – woody plants above ground level)
oExamples: porcupine, deer, giraffe, moose, gerenuk, tapir, ostrich
oConcentrate selectors (CS) are equivalent to browsers
Select easily digestible, highly nutritious, low fibre foods, buds, young leaves
Examples: deer (white-tailed, mule), giraffes, rabbits
- Intermediates (IM) both graze and browse
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oExamples: goats, caribou, muskox, moose, pronghorn, elk
- Folivores: eat leaves
oExamples: sloths, koala, howler, colubus, langur, monkeys, hoatzin
- Mycophages: eat fungi
oExamples: long-nosed potoroo (subterranean fungi / truffles)
- Licenophages: eat lichen
oExamples: caribou, northern flying squirrel, Yunnan snub-nosed monkey in the winter
- Frugivores: eat fruit (succulent or dry, contain seeds)
oSucculent fruits are high in sugars, vitamin C, low Ca2+ (feed insects to young), seasonal
oExample: black bear (berries, cherries, acorns, beech nuts, hazelnuts in the late summer, fall)
oExample: cedar waxwing (mountain ash, dogwood, grapes, hawthorn fruit, sumac)
oNuts are (dry) concentrated food, high in fats
- Granivores: eat seed, grains (actually dry fruit)
oExamples: deer mouse (tree seeds, especially maple), red squirrel (pine and spruce cones),
goldfinch (seeds of thistles, grasses, birch alder, teasel, evening primrose)
- Nectarivores: eat nectar
oNectar is high in sugars, low in protein and Ca2+ (usually feed insects to young)
oExamples: ruby-throated hummingbirds (nectar, often with insects), many tropical bats
- Pollenphages: eat pollen which is rich in protein
oExamples: some tropical bats – important in pollination of tropical fruits
- Nectarivore and pollenophage obligate: eat only nectar and pollen
oExample: honey possum
- Gumivores: eat gums and exudates
oExamples: marmosets, northern flying squirrel
When Do Animals Eat?
- Diurnal: during the day (light, see food, but can also see and be seen by predators)
- Nocturnal: during the night (dark, cannot easily see food, need enhanced sight, hearing, but cannot
easily be seen by predators, cool in hot, deserts)
- Crepuscular: dawn and dusk (cool time in hot climates), many grazers and browsers
- Direct solar radiation intensity changes with time of day, time of year
Animal taxonomy
- Mammalian orders which eat only animal food are Monotremata, Tubulidentata, Pholidota, and
Macroscelidea, but not Carnivora or Insectivora
- Mammalian orders which eat only plant material are Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla, Proboscidea, Sirenia
and Hyracoidea, but not Artiodactyla
ORDER Carnivora
- Canidae → “canids”
oCoyote and wolf – facultative carnivore
oArctic fox – opportunistic omnivore
oRed fox, grey fox – opportunistic feeders (have substantial plant material in diet)
- Ursidae → “ursids”
oPolar bear – obligate carnivore
oBlack bear – frugivore
oGrizzly bear – omnivore
oGiant panda – herbivore (bamboo)
- Procyonidae
oRaccoon – omnivore
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- Ailuridae
oLesser (red) panda – herbivore
- Mustelida → “mustelids”
oWeasels, black-footed ferret, mink, badger, river otter, sea otter – carnivores
oMarten, fisher, wolverine – carnivores
oStriped skunk, western spotted skunk – omnivores
- Viverridae
oCommon palm civet – omnivore
oFossa – carnivore
- Hyaenidae
oBrown hyena – scavenging carnivore
oStriped hyena – omnivore
oSpotted hyena – carnivore
oAardwolf – carnivore (eat ants, termites)
- Felidae → “felids”
oCougar, lynx, bobcat – obligate carnivores (need taurine, AA, pre-formed vitamin A)
Order Insectivora
- Solendontidae
oSolenodons – omnivore (eats ants, insects, grubs, small reptiles, fruit, other vegetation)
- Tenrecidae
oTenrecs – carnivore (eats earthworms, grubs, grasshoppers, small vertebrates)
- Chrysochloridae
oGolden moles – carnivore (eats earthworms, small invertebrates)
- Erinaceidae
oHedgehogs, moonrats – omnivore (eats earthworms, beetles, larvae, small vertebrates, fruit, etc.)
- Soricidae
oShrews – omnivore (eats insects, worms, snails, young mice, vegetation, fungus, fish, frogs, etc.)
- Talpidae
oMoles – omnivores (eats snails, worms, insects, fish, frogs, water plants, crustaceans)
Exclusivity
- Carnivores may also ingest the gut of herbivorous prey which will contain vegetation
- Herbivores may eat invertebrates that are in/on plant material
- Animals in a given order may have similar gut structures, but may not always have similar food habits
oOrder Carnivora are not all carnivores
oOrder Insectivora and none eat only insects
Lecture Series 3: Energy
- 1 calorie: heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C
o1g CHO contains ~4 kcal (GE)
o1g protein contains ~5-5.5 kcal (GE = DE)
o1g fat contains ~9 kcal (GE = DE = ME)
- 1 Joule: energy expended when 1 kg is moved 1m by a force of 1 N
Energy requirements
- Energy is required for:
oDaily energy expenditure = maintenance, activity and thermoregulation
oGrowth
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