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Bio anthro exam study notes

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ANTH 1120

Biological AnthropologyDecember0211504 PMAustralopithsPreAustralopithsArdipithecus ramidusAustralopithecus afarensisBipedalismnot efficient moved Found Ethiopia Kenya TanzaniaAustralopithecus anamenisisthrough trees43 MYAfoundNorthern KenyaSmall cranium300350cc found foot prints large skeletal collection new stone tool evidence4539 MYA Reduced canine sizemore generalized BipedalBipedaldietSmall brainSmall brainedCanine size associated with dominance Large teethLarge teethin malesZygomatic flaresZygomatic flaresCurvature of hands and toesOwen Lovejoyfood for sex adaptationAgile moving through treesEarly hominid males had feminized Short 1mhard to walk long distancescaninessuggested females preferred Lucy and Dikika babynonaggressive malesgained Parallel tooth rowsreproductive success by exchange of Lucy found 1974 40 of skeletonvaluable foods for copulationCant depict social aspects based on samples of a few teeth and bonesParanthropusParanthropus aethiopiusAustralopithecus africanusAustralopithecus sedibaFound Northern Kenya EthiopiaFound South AfricaFound South Africa2523 MYA252 MYA2MYA Huge teethHuge teethPelvis shaped for bipedalismSagittal crestSagittal crestHeels like apesMassive jawsMassive jawsHandsprecision gripLarger than gracile still small brain capacityLarger than gracile but still small brain capacityBrain still small but more human likeTaung baby Tool makingCranial capacity 400500ccHigh humerofemoral ratiolike chimpsParanthropus boiseiFound East AfricaEthiopia Kenya TanzaniaParanthropus robustus2312 MYAFound South AfricaThick enamel thickest of all hominins teeth 215 MYAtwice as large as modern humansNot as dentally robust still large teeth for chewing roots nuts seeds etcAble to eat tough foods nuts seeds tubers Brain 530ccroots when more preferred foods were short Zygomatic flaresSkull 500545ccMassive jawSagittal crestProminent sexual dimorphism male 13m 68kg female 1m 45kgFlared zygomatic Bio Anthro 1120 exam review Page 1
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