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Final

Bio anthro exam study notes


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 1120
Professor
E.Finnis
Study Guide
Final

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found- Northern Kenya
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~4.5-3.9 MYA
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Bipedal
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Small brained
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Large teeth
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Zygomatic flares
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Australopithecus anamenisis:
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~4.3 MYA
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* found foot prints, large skeletal collection, new stone tool evidence*
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Bipedal
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Small brain
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Large teeth
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Zygomatic flares
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Agile moving through trees
Curvature of hands and toes
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Short (1m)- hard to walk long distances
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Lucy and Dikika baby
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Parallel tooth rows
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Australopithecus afarensis:
Lucy: found 1974, 40% of skeleton
Australopiths:
Paranthropus:
Found: Northern Kenya, Ethiopia
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~2.5-2.3 MYA
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Huge teeth
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Sagittal crest
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Massive jaws
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Larger than gracile; still small brain capacity
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Paranthropus aethiopius:
Found: South Africa
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2.5-2 MYA
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Huge teeth
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Sagittal crest
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Massive jaws
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Larger than gracile but still small brain capacity
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Taung baby
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Cranial capacity: 400-500cc
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High humerofemoral ratio- like chimps
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Australopithecus africanus:
Found: South Africa
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2 MYA
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Pelvis shaped for bipedalism
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Heels like apes
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Hands- precision grip
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Tool making??
Brain still small but more human like
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Australopithecus sediba:
Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania
Found East Africa
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~2.3-1.2 MYA
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Thick enamel (thickest of all hominins) teeth
twice as large as modern humans
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Able to eat tough foods (nuts, seeds, tubers,
roots) when more preferred foods were short
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Skull: 500-545cc
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Sagittal crest
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Prominent sexual dimorphism; male 1.3m 68kg,
female ~1m 45kg
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Flared zygomatic
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Paranthropus boisei:
Found: South Africa
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~2-1.5 MYA
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Not as dentally robust; still large teeth for chewing roots, nuts, seeds, etc.
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Brain: 530cc
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Zygomatic flares
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Massive jaw
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Paranthropus robustus:
Pre-Australopiths:
Bipedalism- not efficient, moved
through trees
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Small cranium- 300-350cc
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Reduced canine size-more generalized
diet?
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Canine size associated with dominance
in males
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Ardipithecus ramidus:
Can't depict social aspects based
on samples of a few teeth and
bones
Early hominid males had feminized
canines- suggested females preferred
nonaggressive males- gained
reproductive success by exchange of
valuable foods for copulation
-
Owen Lovejoy- "food for sex" adaptation
Biological Anthropology
December-02-11
5:04 PM
Bio Anthro 1120 exam review Page 1
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