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Midterm

ANTH 1150 Midterm Review

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTH 1150
Professor
Troy Riddell
Semester
Winter

Description
ANTHMidtermReviewLectureNotesListtheFiveSubFieldsofAnthropologyBiologicalorPhysicalAnthropologylookingatbonesbodypartsArchaeologyStudyofhumanconditionsthroughmaterialremainsLinguisticAnthropologyorAnthropologicalLinguisticsfocusesonuseoflanguagecommunicationincontextNotjustgrammaticalstructurebuthowpeoplecommunicateinsocialculturalcontextSocialandCulturalAnthropologyorCulturalAnthropologyfocusesonsocialaspectswearegroupedtogetherinstatuslifestyleetcHumanculturalandsocialvariationshowarepeoplegroupedtogetherinonesocietycomparedtoothersAppliedAnthropologymakeconceptstodealwithproblemsDealswithproblemsolvingHolismCharacteristicofanthropologicalapproachtounderstandingMustlookatmanydifferentapproachesandaspectsMajorcharacteristicsofsocialandculturalanthropologyHolismComparativePerspectiveOrdinarypeopleeverydaylifeCharacteristicsofanthropologicalresearchFirsthandobservationtalkingandobservingpeoplePersonalcontactwithinformantsaresearcherlearnsthelanguagespokenbyhisherinformantslongtermresearchCultureshockthefeelingapersongetswhentheyareexperiencinganunfamiliarsocietycausingthemtofeeldisorientedduetoanewcountryorimmigratingtoanewplaceCulturalMisunderstandingnotknowingenoughaboutasocietycancreateawkwardsituationforresearchersExJapandefofdaughterAnthropologistsfieldnotescollectdataincontextwritedownthesettingmaterialobjectsandtoolsuseddresswearpatternsofcommunicationandinteractionmusicbodymovementsstatusroledifferencesLifehistorymethodusedthatprovidesapersonalculturalportraitofexistenceorchangeinacultureGenealogicalMethodproceduresbywhichethnographersdiscoverandrecordconnectionsofkinshipdescentandmarriageEthicalresponsibilitiestoscholarshipandsciencetopeopleandanimalstothepublicWeek2CultureLearnedcontentsoftheculturearelearnedsharedgroupswayofdoingthingsandyoulearntobepartofthegroupIncludesrepetitivepatternsofbehaviorthoughtandfeelinglearninghowtoexpressemotionsindifferentculturesExamplesFijiattitudestowardsbodyshapesEthnocentrismandCulturalRelativismexampleTheHofriyatipeopleinSudanfemalecircumcisionCulturalMaterialismInfrastructureCakebottomlayerModeofreproductionmodeofproductionStructureMiddlelayerdomesticeconomypoliticaleconomySuperstructuretoplayerreligionartideologyvaluesidentityWeek3CulturessometimesmodifyotherculturesaroundtheworldintotheirownExampleMcDonaldsinKoreadefinitionofsmileinAmericapoliteKoreanotworkinghardHumansusemetaphorstodescribeaparticularviewoftheworldMetaphorpaintsanexperienceandappliesittootherexperiencesinlifeExSurrogatemothersinIsraelWhydohumanbeingsdifferinbeliefsandbehavioursMembersofaparticulargroupsharethesameculturetheyviewtheworldinasimilarwayandaculturecanbeseenasasharedsystemofmeaningsThewaysinwhichmessagesarecommunicatedrevealtherelationshipbetweenthosehavingaconversationSociolinguisticsthestudyoftherelationbetweenlinguisticperformanceandthesocialcontextofthatperformanceExrlessspeechinNewYorkWomensconversationstylesusespeechtotryandbuildunderstandingworryaboutothersfeelingsandlooksympatheticmoreeyecontactMensconversationstylesUsespeechtomaintainstatusdefendthemselvesdontapologizebecauseitmakesyouseemweakerusebodylanguagedonthaveclosebodycontactlesseyecontactwhenwomentalkabouttheirproblemstheyarelookingforsympathybutmeanfeeltheyneedtosolvetheproblemKinesicsstudyofbodylanguageWeek4SapirWhorfHypothesisourworldviewisconstructedacertainwaybecauseofthelanguagewespeakExHaving50differentwordsforrainwilllookatworlddifferentlythanthosewhoonlyhaveoneSixModesofProductionforaginghorticulturepastoralismplowagricultureirrigationagricultureandindustrialagricultureForaginghuntingandgathering100000yearsoldLiveinsmallscalenomadicgroupsof30100peopleisnotsustainablewithtoomanypeopleGatherwildvegetableshuntedlargeandsmallgameExTheKungForagersswitchedtohorticultureduetogrowingpopulationHorticultureslashandburncultivationincreasesfoodproductionisnonintensivedoesntuselandcontinuouslyrequiresfallowperioddoesntinvolveanimalsmachinesjustsimpletoolsLowpopulationdensitydontmakehugeharvestssocannotsupportextremelylargepopulationExTheGuaraniDifferencesbetweenhorticultureandagriculturepreindustrialHorticulturenonintensivefallowperiodrequiredsimpletoolslowpopulationdensityAgricultureintensivelabourplowingterracinguselandcontinuouslynofallowperiodusedomesticatedanimalshighpopulationdensityExRuralnorthIndiaLandNeededtofeed100familiesHorticulture3000acresIrrigationagriculture90200acresItrequiresuptotentimesmorelabourtoproduceaharvestwithirrigationagriculturethanitdoestoproduceonewithhorticultureTheNuercombinepastoralismhorticultureandforagingmodesofproductionareoftencombinedinagivensocietypastoralismmustbecombinedwithanothermodeofproductionforpeopletosurvivesignificanceofcattleisformilkleathergoodspoliticallycowsformalliancesreligiouslycowsareusedtocontactthespiritualworldinitiationrituals
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