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Midterm

ANTH 1150 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Emic And Etic, White Day, Kabini River


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 1150
Professor
Troy Riddell
Study Guide
Midterm

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ANTH Midterm Review
Lecture Notes
List the Five Sub-Fields of Anthropology
Biological or Physical Anthropology: looking at bones, body parts
Archaeology: Study of human conditions through material remains.
Linguistic Anthropology (or Anthropological Linguistics): focuses on use of
language/communication in context. Not just grammatical structure, but how people communicate
in social/cultural context
Social and Cultural Anthropology (or Cultural Anthropology): focuses on social aspects – we
are grouped together in status, lifestyle, etc. Human cultural and social variations – how are people
grouped together in one society compared to others?
Applied Anthropology: make concepts to deal with problems. Deals with problem solving.
Holism: Characteristic of anthropological approach to understanding. Must look at many different
approaches and aspects.
Major characteristics of social and cultural anthropology: Holism, Comparative Perspective, Ordinary
people, everyday life.
Characteristics of anthropological research: First-hand observation (talking and observing people),
Personal contact with informants, a researcher learns the language spoken by his/her informants, long term
research.
Culture shock: the feeling a person gets when they are experiencing an unfamiliar society, causing them to
feel disoriented due to a new country or immigrating to a new place.
Cultural Misunderstanding: not knowing enough about a society can create awkward situation for
researchers (Ex. Japan def. of daughter)
Anthropologist’s field notes: (collect data in context) write down the setting, material objects and tools
used, dress/wear, patterns of communication and interaction, music, body movements, status/role
differences.
Life history: method used that provides a personal cultural portrait of existence or change in a culture.
Genealogical Method: procedures by which ethnographers discover and record connections of kinship,
descent, and marriage
Ethical responsibilities: to scholarship and science, to people and animals, to the public
Week 2
Culture: Learned (contents of the culture are learned), shared (group’s way of doing things, and you learn
to be part of the group). Includes repetitive patterns of behavior, thought, and feeling (learning how to
express emotions in different cultures).
Examples: Fiji attitudes towards body shapes
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism example: The Hofriyati people in Sudan (female circumcision)
***Cultural Materialism: Infrastructure (Cake bottom layer – Mode of reproduction, mode of
production), Structure (Middle layer – domestic economy, political economy), Superstructure (top layer –
religion, art, ideology, values, identity)
Week 3

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-Cultures sometimes modify other cultures around the world into their own. Example: McDonald’s in
Korea, definition of smile in America = polite, Korea = not working hard.
-Humans use metaphors to describe a particular view of the world.
Metaphor: paints an experience and applies it to other experiences in life. Ex. Surrogate mothers in Israel .
Why do human beings differ in beliefs and behaviours? Members of a particular group share the same
culture; they view the world in a similar way, and a culture can be seen as a shared system of meanings.
-The ways in which messages are communicated reveal the relationship between those having a
conversation.
Sociolinguistics: the study of the relation between linguistic performance and the social context of that
performance. (Ex. ‘r’ less speech in New York)
Women’s conversation styles: use speech to try and build understanding, worry about others’ feelings and
look sympathetic, more eye contact.
Men’s conversation styles: Use speech to maintain status/defend themselves (don’t apologize because it
makes you seem weaker), use body language – don’t have close body contact, less eye contact.
-when women talk about their problems they are looking for sympathy, but mean feel they need to solve the
problem.
Kinesics: study of body language.
Week 4
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: our worldview is constructed a certain way because of the language we speak.
Ex. Having 50 different words for rain will look at world differently than those who only have one.
Six Modes of Production: foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, plow agriculture, irrigation
agriculture, and industrial agriculture.
Foraging: hunting and gathering. 100,000 years old. Live in small scale nomadic groups of 30-100 people
(is not sustainable with too many people). Gather wild vegetables, hunted large and small game. Ex: The !
Kung. Foragers switched to horticulture due to growing population.
Horticulture: (slash and burn cultivation) increases food production, is non-intensive: doesn't use land
continuously, requires fallow period, doesn’t involve animals/machines, just simple tools. Low population
density: don't make huge harvests, so cannot support extremely large population. Ex. The Guarani.
Differences between horticulture and agriculture (pre-industrial)
Horticulture
-non-intensive
-fallow period required
-simple tools
-low population density
Agriculture
-intensive labour (plowing, terracing)
-use land continuously (no fallow period)
-use domesticated animals
-high population density
-Ex. Rural north India
Land Needed to feed 100 families
-Horticulture: 3000 acres
-Irrigation agriculture: 90-200 acres
-It requires up to ten times more labour to produce a harvest with irrigation agriculture than it does to
produce one with horticulture.
The Nuer
-combine pastoralism, horticulture, and foraging
-modes of production are often combined in a given society
-pastoralism must be combined with another mode of production for people to survive.
-significance of cattle is for milk, leather goods
-politically, cows form alliances
-religiously, cows are used to contact the spiritual world, initiation rituals

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Week 5
Exchange
-The !Kung exchange meat between closely related persons, expecting nothing in return.
-this is generalized reciprocity: you don’t keep track, and are interested in the good of the whole.
-Valentine’s Day in Japan
-Women give gifts to men, expect something back on White Day
-this is balanced reciprocity because one part expects something in return
Trobrianders
The Kula
-Ceremonial exchange among Trobrianders and other tribes in the region involve powerful men.
-Exchanges are not for gain, but to become known to others.
-Balanced reciprocity between male exchange partners
-men try to become part of the history of the objects they exchange
-Yams are representative of status in the community; having a yam house is like a bank account
-Banana leaf bundles are created for funerals, represent prestige the more you have.
Silent Trade among the Mbuti
-the giver expects something in return immediately
-Negative reciprocity because they do not trust each other enough
Receiving food stamps in the US
-products move from the local level to the hierarchical center, where they are reorganized
-a portion of products is sent back to local levels and then given away to both producers and non-producers
Redistribution because resources are collected at a higher level, and distributed evenly
A cup of coffee at McDonald’s
-items are bought and sold using money
-profit-oriented
-value is determined by the law of supply and demand
Price market exchange because it is profit-oriented, value is determined by supply and demand, and
money is traded for goods.
Conclusions
-exchange is a way of communicating identities
-a way of expressing, forming, or strengthening social ties
-a strategy for advancing one’s position in society
The World Market, development, and local subsistence economies
Bolivia and cocaine: a very oppressive relationship that sees Bolivia supplying resources for cocaine to
other countries.
-Transition from subsistence (rural) economies to cash (factories) economies:
-due to increased demand of coca leaves for cocaine in first world countries
-loss of rural labour force
-destroyed subsistence economy
-certain products no longer available for locals
-processing plants were established
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