[BIOL 1080] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 25 pages long Study Guide!

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The central nervous system brain & spinal cord regulates body functions via neurons. 5 major cell types of the adult human cns; + bottom 4 are classified together as glial" or non-neuronal cells. Dendrites: receive information from other neurons or from the environment. Cell body: controls the cell"s metabolic activities / integrates input from other neurons. Axon: conducts the nerve impulse away from the cell body. Axon endings: release chemicals called neurotransmitters that affect the activity of nearby neurons or an effector (muscle or gland) Unmyelinated 0. 5 to 2. 0 m/sec (very few of these) Myelinated large range 6 to 120 m/sec. * multiple sclerosis = the destruction of myelin sheath, likely due to an autoimmune disorder. Insufficient levels of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine are associated with depression. Lack of acetylcholine is associated with alzheimer"s. @ age 10 in humans brain develops new synapses and prunes away unused ones.