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Biology 1080 Midterm Study Notes.docx

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1080
Jim Kirkland

Biology 1080 Midterm Study Notes CHAPTER 1A 7 Basic Characteristics of All Livings Things 1. Living things contain nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. 2. Living things are composed of cells 3. Livings things grow and reproduce 4. Living things use energy and raw materials. (Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions that occur within the cells of living things) 5. Living things respond to their environment 6. Living things maintain homeostasis. (The relatively constant and self- correcting internal environment of a living organism) 7. Populations of living things evolve and have adaptive traits Levels of Biological Organization - Multicellular organisms- consist of different tissues, groups of similar cells that perform specific functions - Two or more organs working together to perform specific functions form an organ system - Humans are described to have 11 organ systems - Population is individuals of the same species living in distinct geographic are - Community is all living species that can potentially interact in a particular geographic area - Ecosystem includes all living organisms in a community along with their physical environment - An ecosystem can be any size (country, forest, rotting log) - Biosphere part of Earth where life is found (all of earths living organisms and their habitats) - Biosphere is the zone in which the interplay of light, minerals, water, and gases produce environments Theory: a well-supported and wide-ranging explanation of some aspect of the physical universe. (Hypotheses that have been confirmed repeatedly) Statistical Significance: a measure of the possibility that the results were due to chance Clinical Trial: Tests performed on a New Drug before it is Approved by the Food and Drug Administration Placebo: an innocuous, nondrug substance made to look like the drug being tested Informed Consent: a document that lists all the possible harmful effects of the drug or treatment and must be signed before a person can take part in the study Epidemiological Studies: researchers look at patterns that occur within large populations. CHAPTER 1D 12 Major Organ Systems 1. Integumentary system - protects underlying tissues, provides skin sensation, helps regulate body temperature, and synthesizes vitamin D 2. Skeletal System - attachment for muscles, protects organs, stores calcium and phosphorus, and produces blood cells 3. Muscular System - moves body and maintains posture, internal transport of fluids, and generation of heat 4. Nervous System - regulates and integrates body functions via neurons 5. Endocrine System - regulates and integrates body functions via hormones 6. Cardiovascular System - transports nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, and heat, transports immune cells and antibodies, transports hormones, and regulates pH 7. Lymphatic System - returns tissue fluids to bloodstream, and protects against infection and disease 8. Respiratory System - Exchanges respiratory gases with the environment 9. Digestive - Physical and chemical breakdown of food, and absorbs, processes, stores food 10.Urinary System - maintains constant internal environment through the excretion of nitrogenous waste 11.Reproductive System (male) - produces and secretes hormones and produces and releases sperm cells 12.Reproductive System (female) - produces and secretes hormones, produces and releases eggs, and houses embryo/fetus Homeostasis - an advantage of our body’s multicellular, multi-organ-system organization is its ability to provide a controlled environment for the cells - our organ systems interact to maintain relatively stable conditions within - these mechanisms do not maintain absolute internal constancy, but they do dampen fluctuations around a set point to keep internal conditions within a certain range - dynamic state not static - illness can result if homeostasis fails - depends on communication within the body (nervous and endocrine systems) Negative Feedback Mechanisms: corrective measures that slow or reverse a variation from the normal value of a factor, and return the factor to its normal value
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