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BIOL1080 Final: bio 1080 Exam notes.docx

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1080
David Dyck

Antagonistic: the effect of one hormone opposes the effect of another (insulin and glucagon) Synergistic: the combination of two hormones is much greater than its individual response to either Permissive: one hormone must be present for another to exert an effect Parathyroid hormone: increases levels of calcium in the blood by removing it from the bone and allowing the kidneys and intestines to absorb it Adrenal glands: located in the kidneys Adrenal medulla is the inner part, adrenal cortex is the outer part (secretes corticoids) Glucocorticoids act on the liver to promote conversion of fat and protein to glucose and inhibit inflammatory responses. Fight or flight response: - arenal medulla secretes norepinephrine and epinephrine - reaction by body's sympathetic nervous system to emergencies Pancreas is located in the abdomen containing exocrine and endocrine cells - endocrine cells occur in small clusters called pancreatic islets - as levels of blood sugar decline pancreas secretes glucagon (increases blood sugar) - stimulates liver to form glucose - insulin decreases blood sugar Insulin shock - consequences of severe depletion of blood glucose Thymus gland - above the heart - produces thymopoietin and thymosin promote maturation of white blood cells (lymphocytes) to form T cells Pineal gland - gland at the center of the brain - produces melatonin - melatonin levels greater at night because input of pineal gland receives input from visual pathways - neurons of retina, stimulated by light send impulses to hypothalamus to inhibit melatonin ** may influence daily rhythms 1. Keep foreign organisms or molecules out of the body in the first place. - chemical and physical surface barriers - skin flakes off, mucous traps microbes (physical) - sweat and oil, lining of the stomach (chemical) 2. Attack ANY foreign organism or molecule or cancer cell inside the body - internal cellular and chemical defenses - defensive cells (phagocytes), macophages - natural killer cells (act as police) which attach to foreign cells and cause them to burst - defensive proteins - interferons : slow spread of viruses in body - attract macrophages and NKC, tell other cells to produce proteins to protect from virus replicating - Complement system: 1. destruction of pathogen: punch holes in foreign cells (just like NKC) 2. enhancement of phagocytosis: attract macrophages to site of infection to remove foreign cells. complement cells aid in this process by binding to microbes. 3. stimulation of inflammation: causes blood vessels to widen and become permeable, increasing blood flow and WBC to infected areas Inflammation - destroys invaders and helps repair damaged tissue - Redness: blood vessels widen by histamine (through mast cells), increasing blood flow. - delivers phagocytes, blood-clotting proteins, defensive proteins (complment/antibodies) - Heat: increases metabolic rate of the body cells in the region, speeding healing (increases activity of phagocytic cells and defensive cells) - Swelling: histamine makes capillaries more permeable allowing blood-clotting factors to enter the injured area and protect the surrounding area, preventing excessive blood loss. Increases oxygen and nutrient content. - Pain: excessive fluid presses on nerves contributing to sensation of pain, bacterial toxins Fever - caused by PYROGENS: chemicals that raise thermostat in brain (hypothalamus) to a higher set point - fever breaks when set point is lowered and we sweat to reduce temperature - slows growth of bacteria by liver and spleen removing iron from blood, and bacteria needs iron - increases metabolic rate 3. Destroy a SPECIFIC type of foreign organism or molecule or cancer cell inside the body. - immune response: allows you to recover from illness and it has a memory of previous viruses MHC markers: major histocompatibility complex, labels for self molecules Antigen: non-self substance that triggers a response, usually embedded on protein coat of virus T cells: recognize specific MHC markers and not respond to those that have them - they travel through the body bumping into cells and checking is they have the marker Antigens bind to receptors on T cells, which divide into effector cells and memory cells. - effector cells: attack the enemy - memory cells: long lived cells that remember the particular invader Secondary Immune Response Antibody-mediated immune response - defend against antigens travelling freely in intracellular fluid (toxins, bacteria, viruses0 - effector B cells use antibodies, which neutralize and remove potential threats Cell-mediated immune response -protect against cellular pathogens or abnormal cells through T cells Threat: antigen lacks MHC marker and evades first two lines of defense Detection: Macrophages engulf foreign material Alert: Presents antigen to helper T cell to identify invader (must show it to a specific helper T cell) to then activate it Alarm: activated helper T cell begins to secrete chemical messengers (calls in B and T cells0 Building Specific Defenses: B and T cells divide repeatedly Defense: The antibody-mediated response - plasma cells secrete antibodies into bloodstream to protect against antigens - antibodies and antigens fit together like a lock and a key Precipitation: causes antigens to clump together and precipitate, aiding in phagocytosis Lysis: pokes holes through membrane of target cell causing it to bust Attraction of phagocytes: phagocytes engulf and destroy the foreign material Neutralization: antibodies bind to toxins preventing them from causing harm Defense: the cell-mediated response - effector T cells destroy antigen bearing cells - must encounter a macrophage then a helper T cell must release a chemical to activate T cells - perforins cause holes to form in target membrane so that it disintegrates Continued Surveillance: memory cells divides and produce effector cells quicker than in first response Withdrawal of forces: suppressor T cells releases chemical to slow down activity of B and T cells Active Immunity: actively defends itself by producing memory B and T cells following antigen exposure Passive Immunity: protection that results when a person receives antibodies produced by another person (mother --> fetus, breast milk) Autoimmunity - when the immune system fails to distinguish itself from foreign matter and attacks itself - systemic lupus erythematosis - antibodies produced by B cells gone astray - connective tissue is attacked Blood: 55% plasma (yellow), 45% RBC, WBC and platelets RBC made from Erythoblasts, WBC from lymphocytes, monocytes, myeloblast (neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil), platelets from megakaryocytes Blood clotting - platelets cling to cables of collagen, a protein fiber - fibrin makes a web that traps blood cells and forms a clot, preventing additional blood loss Blood vessels and blood flow - interior of blood vessel = lumen = inner lining that comes in contact with blood - lining is called endothelium provides smooth surface minimizing friction - arteries: muscular tubes transporting blood AWAY from heart to tissues Veins - contain valves preventing backflow of blood - contraction of skeletal muscles squeezes veins - breathing changes pressure moving blood towards heart Heart - myocardium: wall of heart - endocardium: thin lining - pericardium: thick, fibrous sac holds the heart in the center of the chest - AV valves: atrium to ventricle - Semi lunar valve: ventricle to artery Pulmonary circuit: transports blood to and from the lungs (right side) Systemic circuit: transports blood to rest of tissues (left side) Coronary circulation: extensive network of capillaries services tissues of the heart Coronary arteries: Ensures heart receives a rich supply of oxygen and nutrients Cardiac cycle: flow of blood through the heart chambers during a single heartbeat - systole: contraction - diastole: relaxation SA node: sinoatrial node - right atrium near the superior vena cava Internal conduction system: ECG: image of electrical activities of the heart Blood pressure: the force exerted by blood against the walls of the blood vessels Sphygmomanometer measures blood pressure!! Lymphatic System 1. Return excess interstital fluid to the bloodstream 2. Transports products of fat digestion from the small intestine to the bloodstream 3. Help defend against disease-causing organisms - they are designed to absorb interstital fluid not carried away by capillaries - end blindly, unlike blood capillaries, but are much more permeable Lymph nodes: cleanse the lymph as it slowly filters through - contain macrophages and lymphocytes Thymus gland: located in the chest, Spleen: clears blood of old and damaged RBC GI tract: long, hollow tube Mucosa: mucous-layer, lubricates lumen Submucosa: connective tissue containing blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves Muscularis: movement of materials and mixing ingested materials with digestive secretions Serosa: thin layer of epithelial tissue, wraps around outside of GI tract Hepatic portal vein - blood vessel takes blood from GI tract and spleen to the liver Salivary glands - sublingual, parotid, submandibular Stomach - 1. storing and regulating release of food - 2. liquefying food - 3. carrying out initial chemical digestion of proteins - contains gastric pits in the gastric glands, produce gastric juice (pepsin and hydrochloric acid) Small intestine - chemical digestion and absorption (jejunum and ileum) - duodenum: digestive juices enter here from liver, pancreas and stomach - serves as a waiting line - chemical digestion - caused by pancreatic enzymes - bile plays important role in digestion of fats (produced in liver, stored in gallbladder) - spreads out fat molecules so lipase can break them down easier - large surface area to increase absorption due to villi - microvilli brush away debris - blood capillaries surround a lacteal, which is a lymphatic vessel, that carries away fats Pancreas - lies behind the stomach - pancreatic juice contains enzymes, water and ions, biocarbonate ions to neutralize acidity - break down nutrients Liver - blood from capillaries through hepatic portal veins to the liver - control glucose level in blood - helps transport lipids in blood - removes poisonous substances - hepatitis = inflammation of liver Gallbladder - squirts bile into small intestine Large intestine - absorb most of water remaining in indigestible food - store feces and dispose of them - appendix does not play a role in digestion but might help your immune system - cecum is the start of the large intestine - colon: absorbs water and ions Nerves and Hormones of Digestion - nervous system controls salivation - gastrin: increases production of gastric juices - secretin: stimulates release of sodium bicarbonate to neutralize acidity (pancreas --> small intes.) Vibrio fischeri - it can secrete small molecules and when there is a high cell density, they allow bacteria to communicate to each other (chemical words create group behaviours) - bacterial quorum sensing - signal producing protein makes proteins which bind to their signal receptor proteins - group behaviours (they make a vote, then everyone responds to the vote) - bacteria grow and then they communicate when to launch their attack to overcome the host molecule (when they infect you - this is done by quorum sensing) - secret conversations between one type of bacteria - however, they are bilingual species - there is a specific enzyme and a general enzyme for communication with minorities/majorities Bacterial biofilms and antibiotic strategies - bacterial growing in biofilms are resistant to antibiotics and immune system - metabolically unique compared to bacteria in planktonic state - future treatment = focus on unique metabolic niches and enzymes that inhibit biofilm accumulation Energy Distribution System - ATP powers most of cellular functions, energy is lost as heat - a calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1L of water by 1 degre
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